European Health Information Gateway

European Health Information Gateway

Practising caring personnel (personal care workers), per 100 000

Full name:
Practising caring personnel (personal care workers), per 100 000 population
health professionals per 100 000 population
Type of measure:
Population-weighted country group average, Rate
Data source:
European database on human and technical resources for health (HlthRes-DB)
Data source notes:
HlthRes-DB provides a wide range of statistics on human and technical resources for health and offers data on non-monetary health care resources collected through the joint work of the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and WHO/Europe. It contains nearly 200 indicators on human and technical resources for health.

Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.

Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.

HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.

Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.

More information:
Indicator notes:
Practising caring personnel (personal care workers), per 100 000 population
Indicator code: carpers.pract.rate This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator "Practising caring personnel (personal care workers), total number".

This category includes both Health care assistants in institutions (ISCO-08 5321) and Home-based personal care workers (ISCO-08 5322).

Health care assistants (ISCO-08 code: 5321) provide direct personal care and assistance with activities of daily living to patients and residents in a variety of health care settings such as hospitals, clinics, and residential nursing care facilities. They generally work in implementation of established care plans and practices, and under the direct supervision of medical, nursing or other health professionals or associate professionals.
- Nursing aide (clinic or hospital)
- Patient care assistant
- Psychiatric aide
- Foreign health care assistants practising in the country
- Nurse (professional and associate professional).

Home-based personal care workers (ISCO-08 code: 5322) provide routine personal care and assistance with activities of daily living to persons who are in need of such care due to effects of ageing, illness, injury, or other physical or mental condition in private homes and other independent residential settings.
- Home care aide
- Nursing aide (home)
- Personal care provider
- Foreign personal care workers practising in the country
- Nurse (professional and associate professional)
- Social worker
Note: The number should be at the end of the calendar year.
Country notes:
Data not available.
Source of data: Republican Research and Information Health Centre and the National Statistic Service of the Republic of Armenia, Report form of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia ? 17 “Health employment”,, Statistical book, Armenia, English version (zip) 2009.
Reference period: 31 December.
Source of data: Austrian Federal Ministry of Health, Hospital Statistics.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Data are only for caring personnel employed in inpatient hospitals (HP 1).
Deviation from the definition: Self-employed caring personnel and caring personnel employed in other institutions than hospitals are not included.
Data not available.
Note: Data not available.
Data not available.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source: Public Health Institute of FB&H - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in FB&H Public Health Institute of Republica Srpska - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in Republica Srpska.
Note: Caring personnel does not exist in the country, the whole time series is set to 0.
No data is currently available for health care assistants employed by hospitals and caring personnel. According to the National Classification of Occupations and Duties, consistent with the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08), the code 5321 includes hospital attendants (caring personnel) and persons responsible for hygiene. Persons included in this group do not have any medical education, knowledge or training. The tasks they perform are as follow: assisting patients whit personal and therapeutic care needs such as personal hygiene, dressing; positioning, lifting and turning patients and transporting them in wheelchairs or on movable beds; maintaining patients' environmental hygiene standards, such as cleaning patient rooms and changing bed-linen. All these persons are included in the group “Other staff employed in hospitals” - non health professionals working on a basic labour contract in inpatient health establishments.
Source of data: Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Health Manpower Register
Reference period: data on December 31
Coverage: public and private health sectors included, caring personnel in private sector have been included since 1993.
Data not available.
Source of data: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic; National Health Information System (Annual report on health personnel).
Reference period: 31st December.
- Providers: caring personnel working in health and social establishments.
- Professions: auxiliary nurses, social care workers (direct care activities and home care activities).
- Type of contract: Employees on payroll and employers (contractual workers are not included).
- Double counting of caring personnel working in more than one health or social establishment.
Source of data: Statens Serum Institut, Labour Register for Health Personnel.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Staff whose status in the Central Personnel Register is active, i.e. in the country (not dead or abroad); connected to HP1, HP2 or HP3 as either a) employed, b) employed, being on leave or
c) employed, receiving sickness benefit.
Source of data: Annual reports, National Institute for Health Development, Department of Health Statistics.
Reference period:
- 1980-2012: 31st of December.
- Since 2013: November.
- Home-based personal care workers are not included.
Break in time series: 2005, 2008 and 2013.
- Until 2004, data refer to practising caring personnel with special education only.
- From 2005, the head count distribution is made according to their main occupational activity, and all personal care workers (caring nurses and assistant nurses) are included regardless of formal education status.
- Until 2007, several hospitals presented caring nurses with special education only; from 2008 all caring nurses have been included.
- The data collection methodology was changed in 2013. Aggregated data collection was replaced with data collection on a personal basis. From 2013, the predominant (main) area of practice is based on an occupation with the highest workload.
Source of data: THL Health Personnel Statistics; National Institute for Health and Welfare. The data for 2000 and 2005 onwards are based on the Employment Register kept by Statistics Finland.
Reference period: Data refer to information for the whole year.
Coverage: Data include caring personnel active in health care in Finland.
Data not available. Data are available for “professionally active” caring personnel.
Data not available. Health statistics do not contain such data.
Data not available.
Data not available.
Source of data: Hungarian Central Statistical Office; Report on personnel of health service.
Reference period: 31st December.
Data not available.
Source of data: Health Service Staff Census.
Coverage: These data only concern practising personnel employed in the public health service. The following grades are included: Attendant (Multi-Task), Attendant/ Aide, Care Assistant (Disability Services), Hairdresser/ Barber, Health Care Assistants, Home Help, Nurses’ Aide, Nursing Auxiliary/Orderly, S.E.N. (General), S.E.N. (Psychiatric).
Note: The increase between 1999 and 2001 is due to an increase in Attendants, Care Assistants and Home Helps, and the increase between 2005 and 2007 is due to an increase in Health Care Assistants and Home Helps.
Source of data: The data are based on the Labour Force Survey which is conducted routinely by the Central Bureau of Statistics and includes persons who had worked for at least one hour during the week before the survey, for pay, profit or other consideration. Occupation is determined by the type of work performed by the interviewed person at his place of work, without regard to what he studied if his work is not in that field. The classification of occupations is based on the classification of the International Labour Office (ILO): International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO 88.
Coverage: The sample is relatively small; therefore the data are subject to variations.
Estimation method: Moving average of three years (numbers for previous, current and next years) was made in order to diminish the fluctuations in the numbers. For example, the number of practicing caring personnel in 1996 is an average of 1995-1997. The number for 2011 is an average of 2010-2012.
Break in time series:
- From January 2012, the Central Bureau of Statistics has made a transition from a quarterly system of measuring labour force characteristics to a new and improved system that better suits the latest international recommendations on employment and unemployment - Monthly Labour Force Survey. Therefore the 2012 (original) data refer to the entire labour force (including the military service) and not to the civilian labour force, as it was before.
- In addition to the transition to a monthly survey, in 2012 a new Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities based on ISIC was implemented as well as a new Standard Classification of Occupations based on ISCO-08. The (original) numbers for 2012 are still reported according to the previous classifications, but the (original) numbers for 2013 are based on the new classifications.
Further information:
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Data not available. Data are available for "professionally active" caring personnel.
Data not available.
Source of data:
- Since 2005: Health Inspectorate of Latvia; Medical Persons' Register.
- 2004 and earlier: Health Statistics and Medical Technologies State Agency; Statistical Report No.17 "Report About Medical Staff".
Reference period: 31 December. Break in series: 2005: Change in data source.
Note: Decrease in the number of caring personnel in year 2009 is due to restructuring of health care institutions.
Source of data: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, data of entire annual survey of health establishments.
Reference period: 31st December
Coverage: The number of practising caring professionals at the end of the year includes all professionally active caring professionals (nurse assistants) with few months nursing courses excluding those working in administration, health education and research.
Source of data: Direction de la Sante - Service des statistiques. Register of doctors and health professionals.
Data not available before year 2013
Source of data: Data is collected by the Directorate for Health Information and Research from all establishments and departments within the Maltese healthcare system.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Data refers to caring personnel employed in both, state and private institutions, but does not include self-employed caring personnel. Figures include service contracts. Figures are calculated estimates, based on Full Time Equivalence. The figure for 2013 has been corrected.
Data not available.
Data not available.
Source of data: Statistics Norway; Statistics on health-care personnel. Administrative registers. See
Reference period: 3rd week of November.
- The figures provided give the number of professionally active caring personnel within HP1-HP3. There is no guarantee that these professionals actually work in patient care as data refer to the education the individuals have rather than the job they hold within HP 1-3.
- 2009 and onwards: data include all personnel within HP1-HP4.
Break in time series: 2009.
Data not available.
Source of data: Statistics Portugal - Hospital Survey / Official Clinic Survey.
Reference period: 31st December.
- Only data on nurse’s assistants and medical care assistants in hospitals and official clinics (important: some aids practise in both health establishments and/or in other private ambulatory health establishments) are available.
Note: Since 2008 (including reference year 2008), separate inquiries by the Official Clinics Survey for this variable stopped. Therefore, global data have to be estimated. Data should be used with caution. Data revised between 1999 and 2012.
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health Management, Annual statistical report N17 “On staff and cadres of health institutions”.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign workers who provide personal care are not included.
Breaks in time series: 2001, 2002. Data for 2000 include only specialized personnel that took care of “bed patients” (whose physical conditions did not allow them to get our of bed) in the hospitals. Data for 2001 include all junior nurses and other junior medical personnel that provided direct personal care and assistance to the patients in hosplitals. Starting from 2002 data include all junior medical personnel working in hospitals and polyclinics.
Source of data: National Institute of Statistics, Activity of Sanitary Units – annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: data as of 31st December.
Coverage: The data cover all sanitary personnel from public and private sector. The "Caring personnel" include: stretcher bearers, bathing personnel, gypsum operative, mud-bath personnel, laundresses, ambulance drivers, cleaning personnel, disinfection and disinfestations agents and other medical personnel similar to the medical auxiliary staff. The medical auxiliary staff provides cleaning and hygiene services in the medical units, prepare materials necessary for the activity, the transport of patients, etc. From total number of caring personnel the cleaning personnel, disinfection and disinfestations agents could not be excluded. Until 2007 caring personnel working in administration, research and in other posts that exclude direct contact with patients could not be totally excluded.
Russian Federation
Data not available.
San Marino
Source of data: Human Resources Office at the Social Security Institute.
Coverage: Data include only public sector’ health professionals.
Note: The decrease in the number of personal care workers in 2012 is due to a non-renewal of some contracts.
Source of data: Institute of Public Health of Serbia. This subcategory does not exist in the country.
Source of data: Head Office of Work, Social Affairs and Family, record of Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak Republic, No. 11.01.
Coverage: Data refer to formal carers at home.
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia; National Health Care Providers Database.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Practising caring personnel are those working in the health-care sector (primary and secondary care), including public health institutes and the health insurance institute.
Break in time series: 2012: improved reporting from the providers of social care, i.e. included are providers which, next of social care, also provide health care (e.g. homes for the elderly, residential facilities for the disabled persons).
Source of data: National Statistics Institute (INE), based on the Economically Active Population Survey.
Reference period: Annual average. Three-year moving averages (e.g. data reported in 1996 is an average of 1995-1997).
- A significant revision of the numbers of nurses in previous years has been made in 2010 due to a clarification of definitions. The Spanish Working Group for the adaptation of ISCO-08 to our own classifications (CNO-11) determined that Spanish health professionals fit as follows:
a) The category 'associate professional nurses' (ISCO-08 code 3221) does not exist in Spain, so these series have been completely corrected.
b) The nursing aides working in Spain correspond entirely to the group 5 of the ISCO classification (ISCO-08 codes 5321, 5322) based on the tasks and functions they perform.
- From 1995 to 2010, the data include practising caring personnel (5132, 5133 ISCO-88 codes) exclusively. The data by occupation are classified according to the National Occupations Classification (CNO-94 Spain, code 511), the Spanish equivalence of ISCO-88 codes 5132, 5133.
- From 2011 onwards the data are classified according to CNO-11 Spain, codes 561 and 571. The CNO-11 codes 561 and 571 are the Spanish equivalence of ISCO-08 codes 5321 and 5322.
- The number of practising caring personnel was obtained by calculating the number of caring personnel employed in the health sector according to NACE rev.2 (chapter Q) or in private homes since 2009, and similarly with NACE Rev.1 and NACE Rev.1.1 from 1995 to 2008.
- Data analysis over time should be carried out with caution. Data are obtained from a survey and fluctuations in the data can occur for a number of reasons, one of them being the sampling errors. These variations can lead to false assumptions about trends. We advise users of time series data to carefully explore the relevant issues before drawing any conclusions about the reasons for year-on-year changes.
- An update of the figures for the period 1995-2010 has been carried out in 2012: Implementing the new classification ISCO-08 led to findings that indicate that many home-based personal care workers were encoded improperly as ISCO-88 code 5139 from 1995 to 2010. After a thorough review, the data series were updated for the period 1995-2010, including those personal workers mistakenly encoded at that time. Since 2011, all personal care workers (both home-based and in institutions) are encoded within 5321 and 5322 ISCO-08 codes.
- During the first quarter of 2005 various changes have been introduced into the Economically Active Population Survey:
1. New variables have been included in accordance with Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Communities) requirements, set forth in Regulation 2257/2003.
2. A centralised procedure has been implemented for the process of the telephone interviews.
3. With the goal of further standardising the survey process, the questions of the questionnaire have been reformulated.
Estimation method: In 2014, data series have been updated with Spanish population figures imported from Census 2011 and recalculated by using three-year moving averages in order to reduce the large year-to-year fluctuations in data derived from the LFS. The number reported in 1996 is an average of 1995-1997; the number for 2012 is an average of 2011-2013.
Data not available.
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; hospital statistics, statistics of medical-social institutions, community nursing statistics; yearly census.
Coverage: Full surveys on employment in hospitals, nursing homes and community nursing home services. The ambulatory health care sector is not yet covered.
Estimation method: Until 2009, estimations were made with data on professions from 75% of hospitals. Hospitals giving valid information on professions are reasonably assumed to be representative of the whole category (university hospitals, acute hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals, and other specialised hospitals).
Break in time series: Since 2010, hospital statistics have been revised; no estimation needed.
Data not available.
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Data not available.
Data not available. (This job description does not exist in Turkey).
Data not available.
Source of data: Centre of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health, Report form ? 17 “Health employment” of the Ministry of Health, other agencies and private entities.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from definition: data on foreign personal care workers are not included. Current reporting system does not allow to separate Practising caring personnel from Professionally active.
Break in time series: 2009, before 2009 data included only health professionals working in the institutions reporting to the Ministry of Health, starting from 2009 data coverage is complete.
United Kingdom
Source of data:
- England: Skills for Care. Using data from the Health and Social Care Information Centre and the Care Quality Commission. Various dates in the year.
- Scotland: Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC). Using data from: the Care Inspectorate’s Annual Returns (CIARs) from all registered care services and the SSSC’s Local Authority Social Work Services return. Reference period: December.
- Wales: Welsh Assembly Government. Reference period: as of 30th September
- NI: Health and Social Care Northern Ireland’s Human Resources Management System (HRMS) and Human Resources, Payroll, Travel and Subsistence (HRPTS) systems. As of 30th September.
- England: Public and private sector run by social services.
- Scotland: Public and private sector run by social services only. As a small number of Personal Assistants are not included data are an undercount.
- Wales: Data cover National Health Service staff only, i.e. private/independent sector staff are not included Deviation: See Coverage.
Estimation method:
- This is the first year that the UK has submitted data. Data are estimated with work ongoing on its development. Consequently data should be treated as indicative only.
- Data for the four countries has been amalgamated and rounded to produce the estimate.
Further information:
- England: Two data sources: HSCIC (Local Authority data); and Care Quality Commission (estimated from a two thirds return) and estimated for other private sector.
- Scotland: Not all services submit an annual return to the Care Inspectorate. Figures have been corrected or estimated for around 2.7% of services using: historic data for the same service where this was available; the median value of staff figures for similar services or capacity ratios (staff/service users) or WTE/staff-count ratios for the service.
- Wales: data are based on only health staff and will be an underestimate.
Source of data: Institute of Health and Medical Statistics, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reporting form 15-SSV “Report on Health personnel by categories”.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: data include personnel working within the system of the Ministry of Health only.