• Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births, max of cod and clinical data Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births, max of cod and clinical data (Line chart)
  • Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births (Bar chart)
  • Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births (Map)
  • Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births, max of cod and clinical data Maternal deaths per 100 000 live births, max of cod and clinical data (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European Health for All database

Indicators: 618
Updated: 20 November 2023

The following abbreviations are used in the indicator titles:
•    SDR: age-standardized death rates (see HFA-DB user manual/Technical notes, page 13, for details)
•    FTE: full-time equivalent
•    PP: physical persons
•    PPP$: purchasing power parities expressed in US $, an internationally comparable scale reflecting the relative domestic purchasing powers of currencies.

Joint Monitoring Framework (JMF)

The joint monitoring framework (JMF) is used for reporting on indicators under three monitoring frameworks: the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Health 2020 and the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013–2020. The Regional Committee for Europe adopted the JMF in September 2018.

The majority of JMF indicators in the Gateway are linked to existing databases in the Gateway.

Background documents

EUR/RC68/10 Rev.1 Briefing note on the expert group deliberations and recommended common set of indicators for a joint monitoring framework

EUR/RC68(1): Joint monitoring framework in the context of the roadmap to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, building on Health 2020, the European policy for health and well-being

Developing a common set of indicators for the joint monitoring framework for SDGs, Health 2020 and the Global NCD Action Plan (2017)
Indicator notes
Maternal deaths per 100 000, max of cod and clinical data
Indicator code: E080109.F This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator \"\".

A maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes (see ICD-10 manual, vol. 2). Normally, maternal mortality cases are reported to WHO as a part of general mortality data by cause, sex and age. However, in some countries due to the national death certification practices, the number of maternal deaths reported in this way is significantly lower (i.e. coded to another ICD code) as compared with maternal deaths registered in health establishments. These cases are usually reported separately to the Ministry of health and are available as a part of national health statistics. These figures, if different from numbers reported with general mortality data, should be entered under this indicator.
Country/Area notes
Country specific sources and methods
Source of data: National Health Information Analytic Center, Ministry of Health of the Republic of
Armenia http://moh.am/?section=static_pages/index&id=625&subID=824,29. Data collected annually,
reference period: 31 December.
Source: Statistics Austria.
Break in time series:
2014: New electronic data collection system was introduced.
Source: Statistics Belgium (National Institute for Statistics).
Source: Croatian Central Bureau of Statistics - mortality statistics
Source: Clinical data. Year 2002: deaths by XV Chapter of ICD-10.
Source: Cause of Death Register (DAR), The Danish Health Data Authority.
Method: The number of deaths with cause O00-O99.
Annual reporting from health establishments (National Institute for Health Development) compared
with mortality data (Statistical Office of Estonia). In 2012 ? one of the two reported maternal
deaths was caused by other causes not related to pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium.
Source: Cause-of-Death Register, Statistics Finland
Source of data: Centre d?epidemiologie des causes de deces ( inserm)
Source: National Centre for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC) (http://www.ncdc.ge)
Source: Federal Statistical Office, Statistics on the causes of death, Fachserie 12, Reihe 4.
http://www.destatis.de or http://www.gbe-bund.de
Coverage: Data contains the number of maternal deaths (ICD-10: O00-O99 Pregnancy, childbirth and the
puerperium). Excluded are cases of late maternal deaths coded with ICD-10 O96 (Death from any
obstetric cause occurring more than 42 days but less than one year after delivery) and O97 (Death
from sequelae of obstetric causes).
Break in time series: From the reporting year 1998, for the first time, data have been collected
according to ICD-10. In the years before 1998, data have been collected according to ICD-9 and cases
on late maternal deaths could not be separated.
Source: Yearbooks of Demographic and Health Statistics of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office
Source: The Icelandic Birth Registration.
Source: up to 2010: Central Statistics Office. Figures prior to 2007 refer to ICD-9 630-676. From
2007 figures refer to ICD-10 O00-O99.
Break in Series: From 2011, source used is the Confidential Maternal Death Enquiry in Ireland.
Figures refer to the number of direct and indirect maternal deaths. Direct deaths are defined as
deaths resulting from obstetric complications of the pregnant state (pregnancy, labour and
puerperium), from interventions, omissions, incorrect treatment or from a chain of events resulting
from any of the above. Indirect deaths are defined as those resulting from previous existing
disease, or disease that developed during pregnancy and which was not the result of direct obstetric
causes, but which was aggravated by the physiological effects of pregnancy.
Data for 2011 refer to the average number of deaths which took place 2010-2012 as per the
Confidential Maternal Death Enquiry?s method of producing data over a 3-year rolling average period.
Similarly, data for 2012 refer to the average number of deaths which took place 2011-2013.
Source: Medical Administration, Ministry of Health.
Source: ISTAT, Causes of death register.
Source: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene (HI HIC) Causes of death register data.
Source: Direction de la Sante Service des Statistiques, extracted from the certificate of death,
probably underestimated maternal mortality.
Source: Department of Health Information and Research (National Mortality Register).
Source of data: Statistics Netherlands, Cause of death statistics. ICD-9: 630-676 / ICD-10:O00-099.
North Macedonia
Source: State Statistical Office (SSO)
Source of data: Statistics Norway, Statistics on causes of death. Register of causes of death.
Coverage: The statistics on causes of death comprise all deaths, covering Norwegian residents,
whether the person in question was a Norwegian citizen or not and irrespective of whether the deaths
occurred in Norway or not.
- Statistics on causes of death has been published annually by Statistics Norway from 1925.
Statistics Norway's Division for Health Statistics is the data processor for the Cause of Death
Registry, which is owned by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (FHI).
- ICD-10 was implemented in 1996.
Further information: http://www.ssb.no/dodsarsak_en.
Source of data for the period 1999-2004: UNDP report ?Health of women in the reproductive age 15-49?
Republic of Moldova
This indicator is calculated by the formula: (total number of maternal deaths * 100000) / total
number of live births.
Source of data: Medical death certificate
Source of data: National Statistical Office, Institute of Public Health of Serbia.
Coverage: from 1998 onwards data do not cover Kosovo and Metohija Province that is under the interim
civilian and military administration of the UN.
From 2007 onwards, data are obtained by applying the methodology of triangulation, using death
certificates, birth certificates and hospital discharge reports as sources of data.
Source: Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia (NIJZ)
Source: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Statistics on Health Establishments
Providing Inpatient (www.msssi.gob.es)
Coverage: The data reported are the maternal deaths registered in hospitals public and private
Source of data: National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW)
The Causes of Death Register (NBHW)
Online Database: http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/statistics/statisticaldatabase

Non-residents dying in Sweden are not included in the statistics. The causes of death are classified
according to the English language version of the International Statistical Classification of
Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), including the official updates
published on the World Health Organization?s (WHO) website. Since 1987 the ACME system, developed by
the National Center for Health Statistics in the United States, has been used to select the
underlying cause of death. Automated coding of diagnostic terms reported on the death certificate
was introduced in 1993.
Source of data: Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ministry of Health of Turkey.
Source of data: Administrative medical statistics, form 19 ?Report on medical care for pregnant
women, women in labour and puerperant?, form 066/y ?Hospital discharge record? and 106/y ?Medical
death certificate?.
Source: State Statistic Department.
United Kingdom
Data are not available.