Evidence and evidence-informed practice
  • Health and migration in the European Union: better health for all in an inclusive society
    Part 2 of this report presents an overview of good practice in health and migration in the European Union. (Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal)
  • Public health aspects of migrant health: a review of the evidence on health status for labour migrants in the European Region
    Labour migrants are those who are seeking work or are employed in the host country plus those who were previously employed but are no longer working and remain in the host country irrespective of their documentation. A systematic search of scholarly and grey literature found 33 studies published in English between 2005 and 2015: 16 assessing the success of specific policies or interventions for labour migrants and 17 with best practice recommendations for policy-making. Documentation status, high socioeconomic status, access to health insurance, membership of labour unions, safe working conditions, outreach services (often by nongovernmental organizations) and supportive communication methods (e.g. translation services, work safety brochures in many languages) all reduced inequalities in access to and quality of health care provision for labour migrants. An intersectoral approach involving different government divisions and cross-border cooperation also improved health status and access to the health system for labour migrants.
  • Public health aspects of migrant health: a review of the evidence on health status for refugees and asylum seekers in the European Region
    Refugees and asylum seekers are defined in many ways, but can be considered as those who did not make a voluntary choice to leave their country of origin and cannot return home in safety. Outcome data are limited and mostly focused on perinatal and mental health but do suggest significant levels of unmet need. This scoping review considered 72 studies in which refugees and asylum seekers formed part or all of the population studied. The results show that access to appropriate health care across the WHO European Region is very varied and is overwhelmingly shaped by legal frameworks and the regulation of the migration process. The need for improved communication with asylum seekers and coordinated action between agencies within and beyond the health care system is widely noted. Improved data are imperative to support intersectoral work to address the health care needs of asylum seekers and refugees.
  • Public health aspects of migrant health: a review of the evidence on health status for undocumented migrants in the European Region
    Undocumented migrants are people within a country without the necessary documents and permits. They are considered at higher risk for health problems because of their irregular status and the consequences of economic and social marginalization. A systematic review found 122 documents that suggested policies and interventions to improve health care access and delivery for undocumented migrants. Undocumented migrants mostly have only access to emergency care across Europe, and even in the countries where they are fully entitled to health care, formal and informal barriers hinder their access. This raises concerns for both public health and migrant care. On the basis of findings, policy options are suggested regarding data collection, research, entitlement to health care, information and communication, training and intersectoral approaches.
  • The future of international migration to OECD countries. Regional note: Russia and south-east Europe
    Explores the social, economic and environmental forces that attract migrants of various types and backgrounds to OECD countries and those that persuade migrants to leave their countries or to stay at home. (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD))
  • What is the evidence on the reduction of inequalities in accessibility and quality of maternal health care delivery for migrants? A review of the existing evidence in the WHO European Region
    The number of female migrants of childbearing age is rapidly increasing, which entails specific needs for maternal health services. Through a systematic review of the academic literature and a critical interpretive synthesis of policy frameworks, the authors of this review aimed to assess interventions and policies that improve the accessibility and quality of maternal health care for migrants in the WHO European Region. The review demonstrated that most migrant women have poorer maternal health outcomes than other women throughout the WHO European Region. Identified risk factors are linked not only to pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period but also to events before conception. Restricted entitlement and problems with familiarity, knowledgeability, acceptability, availability and affordability jeopardize migrant women’s access to maternal health care. Ensuring universal access to care and providing culturally sensitive care will enhance access to and the quality of maternal health care and eventually improve migrant maternal health.
  • How do variations in definitions of “migrant” and their application influence the access of migrants to health care services?
    Variations in definitions used for “migrant” and for different groups of migrants in different areas can affect health systems’ policies and migrants’ access to health care. This systematic review explored this issue using evidence from academic peer-reviewed and grey literature in 169 publications in English or Russian from 2010 to 2015 that focused on primary care or both primary and secondary care, including screening services and emergency departments. There is no universally accepted definition for migrant at an international level and the heterogeneity of the definitions used limits the comparability of routinely collected data. Legal status was one of the most significant factors determining access to affordable and adequate health services for migrants in a country. This publication recommends as policy options: identifying preferred terms for migrants, seeking consensus on important migration-related variables for collection across health information systems and progressing towards universal access to health care across the WHO European Region.
  • Public health aspects of mental health among migrants and refugees: a review of the evidence on mental health care for refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the WHO European Region
    The increasing number of refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants poses a challenge for mental health services in Europe. This review found that these groups are exposed to risk factors for mental disorders before, during and after migration. The prevalence of psychotic, mood and substance-use disorders in these groups varies but overall resembles that in the host populations. Refugees and asylum seekers, however, have higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder. Poor socioeconomic conditions are associated with increased rates of depression five years after resettlement. Refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants encounter barriers to accessing mental health care. Good practice for mental health care includes promoting social integration, developing outreach services, coordinating health care, providing information on entitlements and available services, and training professionals to work with these groups. These actions require resources and organizational flexibility.
  • IOM glossary of migration related terms
    IOM glossary of migration related terms.
  • UNESCO glossary of migration related terms
    United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) glossary of migration related terms.
  • EMN glossary of migration related terms
    European Migration Network glossary of migration related terms.
  • International migration report 2015
    The International Migration Report 2015, prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. Presents information on levels and trends in international migration for major areas, regions and countries of the world, and on the ratification status of migration-related legal instruments.
  • A review of evidence on equitable delivery, access and utilization of immunization services for migrants and refugees in the WHO European Region
    This review focuses on existing immunization policies and practices for migrants and refugees and provides an overview of barriers and facilitators for access to and utilization of immunization services. Evidence was obtained by a scoping review of academic and grey literature in English and a further 11 languages and included official documents available from the websites of ministries of health and national health institutes of the WHO European Region Member States. The review highlights that vaccination policies tailored to migrants and refugees are very heterogeneous among WHO European Region Member States. By comparison, common barriers for the implementation and utilization of immunization services can be identified across countries. Outlined policy options are intended to strengthen information about immunization for migrants and refugees, support future evidence-informed policy-making, enable the achievement of national vaccination coverage goals and improve the eligibility of migrants and refugees to access culturally competent immunization services.
  • HARROWING JOURNEYS: Children and youth on the move across the Mediterranean Sea, at risk of trafficking and exploitation
    This joint report from UNICEF and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) explores in detail survey data from the Central and Eastern Mediterranean Sea routes to Europe, focusing on adolescents and youth on the move from Africa and Asia. The analysis reveals staggering rates of trafficking and exploitation, and also points to the xenophobia and racism that make young refugees and migrants − especially those from sub-Saharan Africa − vulnerable.
  • Uprooted: The growing crisis for refugee and migrant children
    Around the world, nearly 50 million children have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced. This report presents – for the first time – comprehensive, global data about these children – where they are born, where they move and some of the dangers they face along the way. The report sheds light on the truly global nature of childhood migration and displacement, highlighting challenges faced by child migrants and refugees in every region.
  • ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT - Improving HIV data comparability in migrant populations and ethnic minorities in EU/EEA/EFTA countries: findings from a literature review and expert panel
    This technical report provides an overview of the current situation with respect to data on HIV in migrant and ethnic minority populations; identifies gaps and methodological challenges; and proposes ways in which data, and data comparability, might be improved in Europe.
  • Labour Exploitation, Trafficking and Migrant Health: Multi-country Findings on the Health Risks and Consequences of Migrant and Trafficked Workers
    The study explores the influence of occupational and other risk exposures on people’s health and well-being and compares the experiences of migrant workers and victims of trafficking across sectors and regions.
  • Perception of “smuggling business” and decision making processes of migrants
    This study provides a small-scale, data-driven, qualitative field research conducted at the local level, in Izmir, on the existing perceptions of smuggling and the decision-making processes of migrants.
Related sections
  • Most important projects and stakeholders working in this area of public health, including intergovernmental organizations, national government bodies, and non-state actors.

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    Stakeholders & projects
    Organisations: 7Projects: 5
  • A collection of policies and analyses in this area of public health in the WHO European Region.

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    Policy & analysis
    Policy: 14Analysis: 13
  • A reference list of tools and methods to aid in the design, implementation and monitoring of policies in this area of public health.

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    Tools & methods
    Monitoring: 2Policy support: 12