• Generalist medical practitioners, per 100 000 population (Line chart)
  • Generalist medical practitioners, per 100 000 (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European database on human and technical resources for health

Indicators: 250
Updated: 23 September 2016
Downloads: 4440

HlthRes-DB provides a wide range of statistics on human and technical resources for health and offers data on non-monetary health care resources collected through the joint work of the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and WHO/Europe. It contains nearly 200 indicators on human and technical resources for health.

Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.

Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.

HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.

Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.

More information: http://www.euro.who.int/en/data-and-evidence/databases/european-database-on-human-and-technical-resources-for-health-hlthres-db
Indicator notes
Generalist medical practitioners, per 100 000 population
Indicator code: ph_spec.gen.rate This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator "Generalist medical practitioners, total number".

Generalist medical practitioners (ISCO-08 code: 2211, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/index.htm) do not limit their practice to certain disease categories or methods of treatment, and may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families and communities.
Inclusion
- General practitioners
- District medical doctors - therapists
- Family medical practitioners
- Primary health care physicians
- Medical doctors (general)
- Medical officers (general)
- Medical interns or residents specializing in general practice or without any area of specialization yet
Exclusion
- Paediatricians
- Obstetricians and gynaecologists
- Specialist physicians (internal medicine)
- Psychiatrists
- Clinical officers
- Feldschers
Note: Medical interns and residents who have completed a basic medical university education and are undertaking postgraduate clinical training are included here, if they are specialising in general practice or if they have not chosen their area of specialisation yet. Although in some countries ‘general practice’ and 'family medicine' may be considered as medical specialisations, these occupations should always be classified here.
Note: The number should be at the end of the calendar year.
Country notes
Albania
Data not available.
Armenia
Source of data: Republican Research and Information Health Centre and the National Statistic Service of the Republic of Armenia, Report form of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia ? 17 “Health employment”, http://healthinfo.am/Statistical%20Report.htm, Statistical book, Armenia, English version (zip) 2009.
Reference period: 31 December.
Break in time series: Until 2000, physicians working in administration and management positions requiring a medical education are included in the number of generalist medical practitioners.
Deviation from the definition: Data on interns and residents are included in the category “Other specialties not elsewhere classified”.
Austria
Source of data: Osterreichische Arztekammer - Vollerhebung / Austrian Medical Chamber - total of members.
Reference period: December/January (reference day varies).
Coverage:
- excludes interns ("Turnusarzte").
Deviation from definition:
- The Austrian Medical Chamber double counts physicians who have graduated as general practitioners as well as specialists. This concerns about 200 to 280 cases in the most recent years. Therefore the sum of physicians by categories is greater than the total number of practising physicians.
- Medical interns/residents cannot be separated by specialisation or progress of training.
Azerbaijan
Source of data: Department of Informatics and Statistics, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Reference period: data as of December 31.
Belarus
Source of data: National Statistics Committee of Belarus http://belstat.gov.by/; National Archives of the Republic of Belarus http://narb.by/
Coverage: Data provided by medical practitioners. Interns are included in the column "Medical doctors not further classified”.
Reporting period: 31 December.
Break in time series: 2010. There was no formal separation of the profiles of medical specialties until 2009, so over the years some of the categories of medical specialists could belong to different categories. Thus reliable data on the number of specialties assigned to a specific group of doctors cannot be provided by the National Statistical Committee. In 2010, the Ministry of Health approved the profiles of medical specialties and related positions of medical specialists.
Deviation from the definition: Data on foreign doctors are not included because this information is not available.
Belgium
Source of data: Institut National d'Assurance Maladie Invalidite. “Rapport Annuel”.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data.
- Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals working abroad. Includes professionals of foreign origin.
- General practitioners: Physicians with a minimal volume of patient contacts.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source: Public Health Institute of FB&H - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in FB&H Public Health Institute of Republica Srpska - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in Republica Srpska
Bulgaria
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey
Reference period: 31st December
Coverage: All GPs (head counts) and General medicine physicians who worked on a basic labour contract in health establishments. Residents are included (data refer to the speciality that has been practised). Practices of GPs who have signed contract with Regional Health Insurance Funds are covered. Paediatricians, who practice as GPs are included also.
Estimation method: Data on medical specialists refer to the practiced speciality.
Croatia
Source of data: Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Health Manpower Register
Deviation from the definition: In 1996 and in 1997 the PHC included: General Medical Service, Infant and Young Child Health Service, School Health Service, Women's Health Service. Until 1995 it included physicians in Occupational Health Service and in Emergency Care. From 1998 to 2008 the PHC included General Medical Service, Infant and Young Child Health Service and Women's Health Service.
Break in time series: 1996, 1998 and 2009.
Cyprus
Source of data: Statistical Service of Cyprus, Health and Hospital Statistics. For the years 1985, 1987, 1995 and 2000 figures were obtained from the Census of Doctors, Dentists and Clinics.
Reference period: 31st December.
Czechia
Source of data: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic; Registry of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Practising GPs for adults and GPs for children and adolescents are counted as General Practitioners.
Estimation method: Till 2000 only estimation of total number of GPs for children and adolescents based on split of total number pediatricians.
Break in time series: 2005 (a new legislation on medical professions came into effect in 2004).
Denmark
Source of data: Statens Serum Institut, Labour Register for Health Personnel.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- The BVR register describes movements of health personnel in the Danish labour market. Health personnel included are: living in Denmark, employed and correspond to the ISIC-class 851, specifically ISIC-class 851210 for general practitioners.
- Data refer to "practising" specialists.
- General practitioner has existed as a specialty since 1994.
Estonia
Source of data:
- Annual reports, National Institute for Health Development, Department of Health Statistics.
Reference period:
- 1980-2012: 31st of December.
- Since 2013: November.
Coverage:
- The category “Generalist medical practitioners” presents practising physicians.
- Medical staff working in research or other areas is not included. Military area is included since 2010.
- The data are estimated in 2002-2004 because the number of “physicians in training” contained the number of general practitioners (general practitioners and physicians in training were not distinguished).
Break in time series: 2005 and 2013.
- Until 2004 the number of practising physicians was based on their last or main educational qualification.
- From 2005 the head count distribution is made according to their main occupational activity.
- The data collection methodology was changed in 2013. Aggregated data collection was replaced with data collection on a personal basis. From 2013, the predominant (main) area of practice is based on an occupation with the highest workload.
Finland
1) Until 2009
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. The Register of Finnish Medical Association which is updated by a yearly survey covering all physicians licensed to practice in Finland who are not retired.
Reference period: Mid-March.
Coverage: Data refer to professionally active physicians. Data include physicians who are under 64 years old. All physicians working in primary care are classified as GP’s regardless of their specialty. The remaining specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. The unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and the physicians currently specialising are classified as other. 2) 2010
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Data from a survey: "Physicians’ Working Conditions and Health” 2010 survey.
Reference period: End of year.
Coverage: Survey for 7,000 physicians, response rate 54 %. The data were weighted according to sex, age group and specialisation to represent all physicians under 70 years old who are licensed to practice and living in Finland. The given data concern professionally active physicians under 65 years old. All physicians working in primary care are classified as GP’s regardless of their specialty. The remaining specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. The unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and the physicians currently specialising are classified as “Medical doctors not further defined”.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians. 3) 2011
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Data from a survey: "Finnish Medical Association Labour Market Survey 2012”.
Reference period: March 2012.
Coverage: The survey population consisted of physicians aged under 70 years old, resident in Finland and having a registered e-mail address in the Finnish Medical Association’s register. The survey was carried out electronically in March 2012.An e-mail invitation was sent to 18701 physicians. A total of 5660 physicians responded. The data were weighted according to sex, age group and specialisation to represent all physicians under 70 years old who are licensed to practice and living in Finland. These data concern professionally active physicians under 65 years old. All physicians working in primary care are classified as GP’s regardless of their specialty. The remaining specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. The unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and the physicians currently specialising are classified as “Medical doctors not further defined”.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians. 4) 2012
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Data from a survey: "Finnish Medical Association Labour Market Survey 2013”.
Reference period: March 2013.
Coverage: The survey population consisted of physicians aged under 70 years old, resident in Finland and having a registered e-mail address in the Finnish Medical Association’s register. The survey was carried out electronically in March 2013.An e-mail invitation was sent to 19 212 physicians. A total of 5 076 physicians responded. The data were weighted according to sex, age group and specialisation to represent all physicians under 70 years old who are licensed to practice and living in Finland. These data concern professionally active physicians under 65 years old. All physicians working in primary care are classified as GP’s regardless of their specialty. The remaining specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. The unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and the physicians currently specialising are classified as “Medical doctors not further defined”.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians.
Break in time series: 2010.
France
Source of data: Ministere du Travail, de l’Emploi et de la Sante - Direction de la Recherche, des Etudes, de l'Evaluation et des Statistiques (DREES), Sous-Direction de l'Observation de la Sante et de l'Assurance maladie, Bureau des Professions de sante.
- Until 2010 (01/01/2011): Repertoire ADELI (DREES).
- From 2011 (01/01/2012): RPPS (Repertoire partage des professionnels de sante), ASIP-SANTE RPPS.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data refer to active physicians.
- Data refer to metropolitan France and D.O.M. (overseas departments).
- All public and private hospitals and clinics are covered.
- GPs and non-specialist practitioners are included in the data. They can be salaried (in hospitals or other institutions such as nursing homes, etc.), self-employed or both. They may also report specific skills (e.g. allergology, sports medicine) or practice as homeopath or acupuncturist. Physicians with a foreign (non-EEA) degree who are allowed to practice in hospitals and registered at the French National Medical Council, but without a specialty recognised in France, are included in these data.
- Stomatologists and dentists are not included in the number of physicians.
- Interns and residents are not included.
Deviation from the definition:
- The data refer to active physicians.
- Interns and residents are not included.
Break in time series:
- In 2009 (01/01/2010), there is a break in the series for physicians because of a change in the statistical methodology. Therefore the evolution between 2008 and 2009 must not be interpreted as a decrease in the number of professionals. (The change in methodology had an impact of about -1.3% on the number of doctors in metropolitan France in 2009).
- In 2011 (01/01/2012), there is a second break in the series, because of the change in the data source (RPPS since 2011).
Note: The new source (RPPS) makes it possible to give the number of practising generalist medical practitioners: 92360 in 2011 (compared with 101896 active generalist medical practitioners in 2011).
Georgia
Source of data: Data are based on annual statistical reports collected from health establishments to the Ministry of Health and include both, public and private sectors and also facilities working under other Ministries, such as Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Defence.
Reference period: 31 December 2012
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia. Data for those two regions are unavailable.
Break in time series:
- 2012: In 2012 the Ministry of health revised the list of physician’s specialties, which led to different grouping of doctors and the data collection tool for Human Resources for Health has been essentially changed.
Germany
Source of data: German Medical Association, Medical practitioner statistics; special calculation by the Federal Statistical Office on base of data from the German Medical Association, http://www.gbe-bund.de or http://www.baek.de.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data contain the number of generalist medical practitioners who are actively practising medicine in public and private institutions and provide services directly to patients (head-count data).
- Included are physicians with the specialty “general medicine”, physicians without specialty in the ambulatory sector, physicians without specialty in inpatient care sector and general practitioners (“Praktischer Arzt”).
- Included are interns and resident physicians.
- Excluded are students who have not yet graduated.
Greece
Source of data: Hygiene Divisions and Sections attached to prefectures, Athens Medical Association and Pireas Medical Association. Annual Doctors and Dentists survey, http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-themes?p_param=A2103.
Reference period: 31st December.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians. Unemployed physicians are included.
Hungary
Source of data: Office of Health Care Authorisation and Administrative Procedures.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data. Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals working abroad. Includes professionals who are foreigners.
- The Office of Health Authorisation and Administrative Procedures (EEKH) provided data according to the dominant specialisation practiced during medical work.
- Residents are excluded.
Iceland
Source of data:
- 2003 and onwards: The Directorate of Health, The Register of Physicians.
- Until 2002: The Directorate of Health. Data from inpatient care institutions, health centres and The State Social Security Institute.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data.
- Includes those physicians who are 70 years old or younger with permanent residence and registered domicile in Iceland (Icelanders or foreigners).
- Excludes retired professionals and professionals working abroad.
- May include a very small number of non-practising physicians.
- Physicians in training are not included (unless they already have another specialisation) as data are based on The Register of physicians, and only those who have gained the respected specialty are registered.
- In cases where a physician has more than one specialty, the counted specialisation is the newest specialty. Should two specialities be registered on the same day, the one that is more specialised is included.
Break in time series: Break in series in 2005 due to revision of methodology. The methodology was altered in 2009 in such a way that registered domicile is now taken into account when counting the number of physicians, not only permanent residence. Figures for previous years, back to 2005, were revised accordingly.
Ireland
Source of data:
- Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP), for General Practitioners.
- Medical Council of Ireland, for Other Generalist (non-specialist) medical practitioners.
Coverage: Sum of General Practitioners and Other Generalist (non-specialist) medical practitioners.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to physicians licensed to practice.
Break in time series:
- Prior to 2009, data included specialists in training.
- From 2011, data includes general practitioners (GPs) in training. Break in Series 2014: From 2014, data on other generalist medical practitioners refer to doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland who, in the last 12 months, have declared themselves active and who have worked in Ireland either full or part-time.
Israel
Source of data: The data are based on the Physicians License Registry which is maintained by the Medical Professions Division and the Health Information Division in the Ministry of Health, for which the demographic information is periodically updated from the Population Registry at the Ministry of Interior. The source of residents' data by categories is the Israeli Medical Association. The source for GPs who are working in the community is based on reports from the HMO's (Health Maintenance Organisations).
Reference period: End of the year.
Coverage:
- Data for all categories include number of professionally active physicians based on Ministry of Health data and from Israeli Medical Association. The GP's include practising physicians providing services directly to patients.
- Data include specialists with family medicine, residents in family medicine and medical doctors (general) without any specialty who are working in the HMO's (Health Maintenance Organisations) in the community.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Italy
a) For General practitioners:
Source of data: Ministry of Health - General Directorate of digitalization, health information system and statistics - Office of Statistics, Ministry of Health. Publication: “Attivita gestionali ed economiche delle ASL e Aziende ospedaliere”, Annuario Statistico del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (published annually). Publication available on the web site of the Ministry of Health. http://www.stage.ministerosalute.it/portale/temi/p2_6.jsp?lingua=italiano&id=3835&area=statisticheSS N&menu=pubb.
Reference period: 1st January.
Coverage: Total survey on all general practitioners practising for the National Health System. General practitioners provide the first level care to all citizens aged 14 and over (consultations, visits, prescription of medicines, and referrals for laboratory tests or specialist visits).
b) For “Other generalist medical practitioners”:
Source of data: ISTAT provides data produced by CEGEDIM ITALIA - One Key database. http://crm.cegedim.com/solutions/data/data-overview/Pages/onekey-database.aspx.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Data refer to practising physicians. Medical interns and residents who have completed a basic medical university education and are undertaking postgraduate clinical training can provide services as generalist medical practitioners in the private sector only (not in the National Health Service). Medical interns and residents who are pursuing postgraduate training are included as “other generalist medical practitioners”.
Kazakhstan
Source: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Reference period: 31December.
Latvia
Source of data:
- Since 2005: Health Inspectorate of Latvia; Medical Persons' Register.
- 2004 and earlier: Health Statistics and Medical Technologies State Agency; Statistical Report No.17 "Report About Medical Staff".
Reference period: 31 December. General practitioners (GPs) stated to develop as speciality at the beginning of 90ties and grew rapidly until 2002. At the same time proportion of therapeutists and paediatricians is decreasing as they are re-qualifying to GP, thus fulfilling the functions of primary medical care (interns, GP and paediatricians). Break in times series:
- 2005: Change in data source.
Coverage: interns and residents are included.
Lithuania
Source of data: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, data of entire annual survey of health establishments. Report “Health Statistics of Lithuania”, available from http://sic.hi.lt/html/en/hsl.htm. Predominant area of practice is used as criterion to classify physicians by categories.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Data includes family doctors (general practitioners), therapists in primary health care, medical doctors (general). Up to 2010 residents are excluded. Since 2011 residents are included in respective category of physicians.
Break in time series:
- 2011: Since year 2011, interns and residents are included in the respective category of physicians by specialities. In year 2010 and earlier, interns and residents were included in the category Medical doctors not further defined.
Luxembourg
Source of data: Direction de la Sante - Service des statistiques. Register of doctors and health professionals. Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Until 1999:
- Includes physicians working in administration and research.
- Retired physicians are not included. However, the end of activity of self-employed physicians is often noted with some time lag. From 2000:
- Doctors who do not work in direct contact with patients (laboratories, administration, R&D, etc) are excluded, and interns are included.
Break in time series: 2000.
Malta
Source of data: Specialist Registers and data from the Post Graduate Training Centre, Mater Dei Hospital.
Reference period: 31st December.
Note: Accurate figures are only available from end 2008. The predominant area of practice was used to classify physicians by categories.
Coverage: Includes physicians and interns/residents who are listed under the speciality of General/Family Practice. Physicians not registered under any speciality have been included under Medical doctors not further defined since this should include physicians who are not classified elsewhere, that is, their area of practice cannot be identified,
Montenegro
Source of data: The source for all data submitted is the Institute of Public Health. Some additional information can be found in Health Statistical Yearbooks available at http://www.ijzcg.me/
Reference period: December 31st.
Coverage: Only data from the public sector. The criteria used for the data was the last specialty for which doctors have received registration.
Note: the breakdown was provided for professionally active physicians
Netherlands
Source of data:
- Data for professionally active and licensed generalist medical practitioners are based on BIG register (register of (para)medical professions) and SSB database (micro-integrated database of Statistics Netherlands with data from the municipal register, tax register, social security, and business register). Doctors in training for GP: Physicians in training: RGS (Registratiecommissie Geneeskundig Specialisten: Registration committee medical specialists). Until 2009: KNMG (Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement of Medicine).
Reference period:
- last Friday before Christmas. Physicians in training: 1 January of year t+!.
Deviation from the definition: data refer to professionally active physicians.
Norway
Source of data:
- From 2002: Statistics Norway; Register-based statistics on employment of health-care personnel. See http://www.ssb.no/hesospers_en/.
- For the years prior to 2002: The Norwegian Medical Association was the source for this information.
Reference period: 3rd week of November.
Coverage: Data on medical specialists are based on personnel fulfilling one of the following criteria:
- General practitioner
- Other generalist medical practitioners.
Break in time series: 2002, 2008, 2009.
- The figures from 1993 and 1998 are the figures received from the Norwegian Medical Association and are not directly comparable with the figures from 2002 and onwards.
- From 2002 to 2007, data include only physicians specialised in general practice. From 2008, data include general practitioners and physicians specialised in general practice.
- Up to 2008, data include all personnel within HP1-HP3. From 2009, because of national registration and quality, it is also chosen to include physicians in HP4.
Poland
Source of data: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of National Defence.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Physicians with grade II specialisation or with title of specialist in family medicine (or undergoing training in this specialty), physicians with Grade I specialisation in any specialty, interns and physicians without specialisation.
Note: Grade I and grade II specialisations were granted when the previous system was in force. Doctors, according to Polish law, could achieve this by September 1998. Obtaining a grade II specialisation is equivalent to the current title of specialist, but the grade I specialisation is not equivalent to the title of specialist and has no counterpart in the current system of specialised training.
Portugal
Source of data: Statistics Portugal and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data include physicians with the specialty “General practice and family medicine” and non-specialised physicians.
- Data include active practising physicians, active but not practising physicians and inactive physicians.
- Physicians with more than one specialisation (e.g. General Practice and Pediatrics) will be counted twice.
Deviation from the definition:
- Data refer to physicians licensed to practice.
- Some physicians are licensed to practice in more than one specialty. These physicians are counted in all specialties they have. Therefore the sum of physicians by categories is higher than the actual total number of physicians.
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health Management, Annual statistical report N17 “On staff and cadres of health institutions”. http://cnms.md/areas/statistics/anyar/.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign physicians are not included. Interns and residents are not included.
Romania
Source of data: Ministry of Health for the period 1986-2004, provided the medical specialist in its network. National Institute of Statistics since 2005, Activity of Sanitary Units – annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: data as of 31st December.
Coverage: From 1986-2004, the data cover General practitioners only from Ministry of Health network. Starting with 2005, the data cover public and private sector. Since 2010 data refer to practising physicians. Till 2009 data refer to professionally active physicians. In General Practice are included: general medicine, family medicine and resident medical officers. Because in 2007 and 2008 all resident physicians in training have been included in the “general medicine” category (proposed by the Ministry of Health). NIS used estimates, in order to allocate residents physicians on specialties. Since 2009, NIS included in its own questionnaire the division of residents by specialties according to Eurostat requests. Break in the series:
- 2005 because were included also data from private sector and other public network.
- 2006 because the physicians by specialties include the residents.
- Since 2010 data refers to practising physicians. Explanation: In 2006 NIS included in own survey the physicians by specialties, including those of residents. These were included in each specialty, according to the nature of their residency. The Ministry of Health considered that this distribution was incorrect because the specialty is obtained by the residents only at the end of their residency. Thus, in 2007 and 2008 the residents physicians in training have been included in the “general medicine” category. For the residents in training for years 2007 and 2008, estimations were used to determine their distribution by category. The distribution was made by calculating the average percent of residents in each category, in the total number of residents for 2009 and 2010. These percentages were applied for years 2007 and 2008, using the total number of residents already known.
Russian Federation
Source of data: Annual reporting forms ?17 «Information about the medical and pharmaceutical personnel", ?30 “Information about medical organization” and ?47 “Information about activities of medical organizations”, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes only data for medical institutions of the Ministry of Health. Data from institutions of other ministries and private sector are not included.
Deviation from the definition: Interns and resident physicians are not included. Data include doctors of family medicine, district general practitioners, primary care physicians, and district pediatricians.
Note: The criteria used for placing physicians in the specialties: the prevailing (main) area of their practice.
San Marino
Data not available.
Serbia
Source of data: Institute of Public Health of Serbia, National register on health care human resources. Data as of December 31. http://www.batut.org.rs/.
Coverage: Data for Kosovo-Metohija province are not included in the coverage of data for the Republic of Serbia. Data from health institutions under other ministries (military services, prisons, social services) than the Ministry of Health are not included. Data from private health sector are not included.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians.
Slovakia
Source of data: National Health Information Center. Data are provided from the Register of Health Professionals.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- In the category of “general practitioners”, practising physicians are included whose main area of practice in general care is in accordance with the definition.
- Data are available only for the year 2007. The new Register of Health Professionals was introduced in 2007. This register is not updated every year; therefore data are available for 2007 only. Moreover, data before 2007 are not available because of a different data processing system.
Slovenia
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia; National Health Care Providers Database.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: The National Health Care Providers Database is a registry with total (100 %) coverage of health workers.
Spain
Source of data: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equity. From Primary Care Information System (SIAP). http://www.msssi.gob.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/estadisticas/estMinisterio/siap.htm.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data include number of persons who work in health care centres of National Health System at the end of the calendar year. Data for private sector are not available.
- Included: Interns and residents who are training to become GPs (3 years is required to qualify as GP; before 2005/2006, it used to be 4 years).
Sweden
Source of data: National Board of Health and Welfare, National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
Coverage:
- General practitioners include all physicians employed within the health-care sector whose latest specialist competence is in family medicine.
- 100 per cent coverage.
Switzerland
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; Swiss Medical Association (FMH), Bern; medical statistics of physicians; yearly census.
Deviation from the definition:
- Interns and residents are not included.
- Until 2007, the data refer to professionally active physicians.
- Since 2011, former specialists in internal medicine are not registered under medical specialists but in one single category under Generalist medical practitioners, according to the Swiss medical association.
Break in time series: 2008, 2011.
- Since 2008 the data refer to practising physicians. Data also include “practitioner medical doctors”, to be understood as GPs without FMH postgraduate qualification (specialisation).
- Since 2011, former specialists in internal medicine are registered in one single category under Generalist medical practitioners, according to the Swiss medical association.
Note: No data on physicians in training by categories are available.
- A 25% rise in the number of GPs in years 2002 and 2003 is chiefly the result of the application of the free movement of persons (agreement with the EU) to health professions, especially concerning the recognition of foreign titles and subsequent modification of rules for applying for titles.
Tajikistan
Data not available.

TFYR Macedonia
Source of data: Institute for Public Health-Skopje. Report for health staff in health sector (3-00-60).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: All the physicians work in health sector: general practitioners and general practitioners with specialisation for general medicine (both public and private). Interns and residents are included. Up until 2005, the data sets for private sector are incomplete, because private sector physicians were not sending reports regularly to the relevant organisations and the data for physicians by categories does not sum up to the total number of professionally active physicians. Since 2006, more strict controls for regular reporting were put into practice by the Ministry of Health, which resulted in very accurate report sending and vastly improved evidence of health personnel. Since year 2006, private sector physicians are included and the sum of physicians by categories equals the total number of physicians.
Deviation from the definition: Physicians are 'professionally active.' Break in the series: 2006.
Turkey
Source of data:
- From 2000 onwards: General Directorate for Health Services, Ministry of Health.
- Up to 1999: Health Statistics Yearbook - Ministry of Health.
Coverage:
- Up to 1999: Data includes physicians working in public or university administration. Medical residents are included among generalist medical practitioners. General Practitioners are physicians without any specialty education.
- From 2000 to 2005: Number of GPs only (MoH, university, and private sector are included). Medical residents are not included, which explains the sharp decrease in data between 1999 and 2000.
- From 2006 onwards: Data includes MoH, university, private sector and others (other public establishments and local administrations). MoND-affiliated facilities are not included until 2011.
- Since 2006, the number of generalist medical practitioners in Turkey contains family physicians, GPs and family medicine residents.
- A GP is a general practitioner in medicine who has had 6-year basic medical education. GPs are physicians without any specialty education.
- A Family Physician (Doctor) is a medical professional who received 3-year Family Medicine residency training after graduation from a 6-year medical faculty.
- A Family Medicine Resident (Assistant) is a medical professional who is undergoing a 3-year Family Medicine residency training after graduation from a 6-year medical faculty.
- GPs and family physician specialists acting as managers are also included.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians.
Break in time series:
- 2000 and 2006 (see above).
- MoND-affiliated facilities are included since 2012.
Turkmenistan
Source of data: Report from of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan. ? 17 “Health employment”
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes data from institutions under the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan, data from other Ministries or sectors not included.
Ukraine
Source of data: Centre of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health, Report form ? 17 “Health employment” of the Ministry of Health, other agencies and private entities.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: data on foreign physicians are not included. Interns and residents are not included (as included into the category “Other specialists not elsewhere classified”)
Break in time series: 2009, before 2009 data included only health professionals working in the institutions reporting to the Ministry of Health, starting from 2009 data coverage is complete.
United Kingdom
Source of data:
- England: Health & Social Care Information Centre General & Personal Medical Services Statistics: http://www.hscic.gov.uk.
- Scotland: Information Services Division, Scottish Workforce Information Standard System. GP Contractor Database.
- Wales: Welsh Government: http://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/?topic=Health+and+social+care&lang=en.
- Northern Ireland: General Practitioners from Medlist, Business Services Organisation, General Medicine hospital doctors from Human Resource Management System, Department of Health, Social Services & Public Safety.
Reference period: Data as at 30th September.
Coverage:
- Does not include private sector.
- Scotland: Headcount includes Performer, Performer Salaried, Performer Registrar (GPs in training) and Performer Retainees. Data excludes locum staff.
- Northern Ireland: Includes estimates of General Medicine doctors practising in hospitals, excluding Hospital/Medical practitioner grade, Research Fellows and Clinical Assistants. The UK equivalent of interns and residents, i.e. foundation doctors and registrars, will be included in this data. Data for 2013 is not available due to the phased implementation of a new human resources IT system.
Deviation from the definition:
- Scotland: The sum of GPs and specialists is greater than the total number of physicians due to some staff holding more than one post. There is currently no conventional way of assigning such staff to one group only.
Estimation method:
- Northern Ireland: Hospital doctors with a department code of ‘General Medicine’ have now been included and figures from 2000 have been revised in 2011.
- Wales: 2014 data were not available in time for this collection and so the previous year’s figures were used instead. They will be updated with the correct data in next year’s collection.
- Northern Ireland: 2013 data remain unavailable and continue to be an estimate of 2012. The data are unavailable due to the introduction of a new HR system in 2013.
Uzbekistan
Source of data: Institute of Health and Medical Statistics, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reporting form 15-SSV “Report on Health personnel by categories”.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: data include personnel working within the system of the Ministry of Health only.