• Total hospital employment in FTE, per 100 000 population (Line chart)
  • Total hospital employment in FTE, per 100 000 (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European database on human and technical resources for health

Indicators: 250
Updated: 23 September 2016
Downloads: 4311

HlthRes-DB provides a wide range of statistics on human and technical resources for health and offers data on non-monetary health care resources collected through the joint work of the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and WHO/Europe. It contains nearly 200 indicators on human and technical resources for health.

Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.

Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.

HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.

Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.

More information: http://www.euro.who.int/en/data-and-evidence/databases/european-database-on-human-and-technical-resources-for-health-hlthres-db
Indicator notes
Total hospital employment in FTE, per 100 000 population
Indicator code: hosp_empl.fte.total.rate This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator "Total hospital employment, total number".

Number of persons employed (head counts), and number of full-time equivalent (FTE) persons employed in general and specialty hospitals. Self-employed are included.
Inclusion
- Service contracts with non-employed health professionals on treatment of hospital patients (head counts).
Country notes
Armenia
Source of data: Republican Research and Information Health Centre and the National Statistic Service of the Republic of Armenia, Report form of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia ? 17 “Health employment”, http://healthinfo.am/Statistical%20Report.htm, Statistical book, Armenia, English version (zip) 2009.
Reference period: 31 December.
Austria
Source of data: Austrian Federal Ministry of Health, Hospital Employment.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage:
- Head counts: Data are available only for physicians, nurses, midwives, assistants, and selected other health service providers employed by hospitals (HP.1).
- FTE: Total of FTE employed by hospitals (HP.1).
- FTE: Up to 2007, this figure is a combined figure of appr. 90 % FTE (in publicly financed hospitals) and 10 % head counts (in private for-profit hospitals; the latter have to report FTE since the year of 2008).
Azerbaijan
Data not available.
Belarus
Source of data: National Statistics Committee of Belarus http://belstat.gov.by/; National Archives of the Republic of Belarus http://narb.by/
Reporting period: 31 December. Comment: In Belarus, workers providing medical care are employed by the state of health organization. The concept of "freelancers" in the Republic does not apply. A persons whom perform work in health care organizations under contract, is their principal place of business (primary position).
Deviation from the definition: Statistical reports reflect the number of staff positions occupied by staff units and individuals. In this case, the number of employed staff units indicates the total number of occupied units (including posts occupied by 0.5 or 0.25 units), thus gathering information on the number of full employment staff units has not been done. This section provides information about how many individuals are in the position, regardless of if it is full or part time.
Belgium
Source of data: SPF Sante publique - Service comptabilite des hopitaux.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data exclude independent doctors working in hospitals.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source: Public Health Institute of FB&H, Human resources in hospital service in FB&H Public Health Institute of Republica Srpska, Human resources in hospital service in Republica Srpska
Bulgaria
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey
Reference period: 31 December
Coverage: All persons (head counts) who worked on a basic labour contract in all type of hospitals as well as in dispensaries (HP.1). Since 2010 the pulmonary dispensaries are transformed into specialized hospitals, dermato-venereological dispensaries – into Dermato-venereological centres, oncological dispensaries – into Complex oncological centres, psychiatric dispensaries – into Mental health centres. The activities and functions of the centres and dispensaries are same.
Croatia
Source of data: Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Health Manpower Register
Reference period: data on December 31
Coverage: public and private health sectors included
Cyprus
Data not available.
Czechia
Source of data: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic. National Health Information System (Annual report on health personnel).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Providers: Hospitals and specialised therapeutic institutes (excluding balneologic institutes, convalescence homes for children, institutes for long-term patients and hospices).
- Measurement units: head counts (employees on payroll and employers), FTE (employees on payroll, employers and contractual workers).
- Double counting of health workers working in more than one health establishment (applies only to head counts variable).
Denmark
Source of data:
- Head counts: Statens Serum Institut, Labour Register for Health Personnel.
- FTE: The joint municipal payroll data office (KRL).
Reference period:
- Head counts: 31st December. Data show the number for January first the following year.
- FTE: yearly average.
Coverage:
- Only public section of health staff is included.
- Head counts: Data for ‘Service contracts with non-employed physicians’, ‘Service contracts with non-employed professional nurses and midwives’ and ‘Other staff employed by hospital’ are not available and thus not included in ‘Total hospital employment’.
- FTE: Data include ‘Other staff employed by hospital’.
Note: FTE figures are based on the employee's job description, while head counts figures are based on employee’s education.
Estonia
Source of data: Annual report, National Institute for Health Development, Department of Health Statistics.
Reference period:
- 1980-2012: 31st of December.
- Since 2013: November.
Coverage: For 2006-2010 the head count distribution is made according to their main occupational activity.
Break in time series: 2013
- The data collection methodology was changed in 2013. Aggregated data collection was replaced with data collection on a personal basis. From 2013, the predominant (main) area of practice is based on an occupation with the highest workload.
Finland
Source of data: THL Health Personnel Statistics; National Institute for Health and Welfare. The data are based on the Employment Register kept by Statistics Finland. Data on physicians employed in hospital is taken from the same source as all other statistics on physicians (Finnish Medical Association). This causes a minor (2%) discrepancy in the total number.
Reference period: Data refer to information for the whole year.
Break in time series: 2007 due to a change in the classification of economic activities (excluding physicians, for which the data are taken from a different source with a break in time series in 2010).
France
Source of data: Ministere de la Sante et des Sports - Direction de la Recherche, des Etudes, de l'Evaluation et des Statistiques (DREES). Data are from the “Statistique Annuelle des Etablissements de sante (SAE)”.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data refer to metropolitan France and D.O.M. (overseas departments).
- Total hospital employment includes salaried personnel (medical and non-medical), interns/residents, “faisants fonction d’internes (FFI)” and “diplomes inter-universitaires de specialite (DIS)” as well as self-employed medical personnel. Information on self-employed non-medical personnel is not available.
Estimation method:
- Until 2008, fixed-term contracts were not counted in the head count nor in the FTE. Only the paid monthly average FTE is known. The FTE of fixed-term contracts are estimated by the paid monthly average FTE. Head counts cannot be estimated.
- FTE of self-employed medical personnel is not available, but we know the head count of the self-employed. The FTE are estimated from head counts by applying conventional calculating rules according to the working time of the self-employed.
Break in time series:
- From 2000 onwards, the “faisants fonction d’internes (FFI)” and “diplomes inter-universitaires de specialite (DIS)” are not available by specialty. Therefore, the FFI-DIS data have been estimated based on their ratios in the total number of FFI-DIS over 1994-1999.
- From 2009 onwards, head counts of fixed-term contracts are also included for the non medical staff. Previously only head count of rolling contracts and holders and trainees of the public service were counted.
- From 2011 onwards, the number of persons employed in nursing structures or in nurses and midwives schools juridically depending of hospitals are not counted. From 2013, we count the number of geographical establishments for all the sectors (public and private). The number of hospital persons employed is clearly less impacted by the recast than the number of hospitals. Nonetheless, in this recast, the change of the unit surveyed results in a better quality of data collected in general (less double counting than before), so that it can improve marginally the quality of the number of persons employed
Georgia
Source of data: Data are based on annual statistical reports collected from health establishments to the Ministry of Health and include both, public and private sectors.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia. Data for those two regions are unavailable.
Note:
- 2012: 15% decrease in total hospital employment in 2012 is due to the ongoing reform of the hospital sector.
Germany
Source of data: Federal Statistical Office, Health Care Personnel 2015; special calculation by the Federal Statistical Office; http://www.destatis.de or http://www.gbe-bund.de.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Hospital employment comprises employment in all types of hospitals (HP1.1, 1.2 and 1.3) in all sectors (public, not-for-profit and private).
- Included are persons employed in general hospitals, mental health hospitals and prevention and rehabilitation facilities.
- Data on total hospital employment exclude non-employed physicians and non-employed professional nurses and midwives with service-contracts on treatment of hospital patients.
- From 2000 onwards data from Health Care Personnel have been completely revised. Therefore comparable data before 2000 is not available.
Estimation method: The number of FTE is calculated by adding the full and appropriate proportion of part-time occupied employees. FTE are measured by the number of hours of a standard labour contract.
Greece
Source of data: Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.).
Reference period: 31st of December.
Coverage: Administrative staff is included.
Hungary
Source of data: Hungarian Central Statistical Office, “Report on personnel of health service” per ICHA-HP categories: 1.1(General hospitals); 1.2 (Mental health and substance abuse hospitals); 1.3 (Specialty hospitals).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Includes physicians, nurses, other health personnel, ( e.g. pharmacists), health care assistants and other staff.
Estimation method: Method used to calculate the number of full-time equivalents (FTE): FTE employment measured by the number of hours actually or usually worked divided by the average number of hours worked in full-time jobs.
Iceland
Source of data: The Ministry of Finance.
Reference period: December each year.
Coverage: Data exclude service contracts with non-employed health professionals who treat hospital patients (head counts).
Ireland
Source of data: HR Management Information, Health Service Executive.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data refer to publicly funded acute hospitals only. All employees under the aegis of Acute Services are included.
- Historical data has been restated to cover re-structured health service configuration. Some years' data may remain unchanged.
Israel
Source of data: The data are based on the Labour Force Survey which is conducted routinely by the Central Bureau of Statistics and includes persons who had worked for at least one hour during the week before the survey, for pay, profit or other consideration.
Estimation method:
- The data are subject to variations due to sample errors and wide confidence intervals.
- Full-time equivalents (FTE) was measured by the number of hours actually worked by health personnel divided by the average hours worked in full-time jobs in Israel.
Break in time series:
- From January 2012, the Central Bureau of Statistics has made a transition from a quarterly system of measuring labour force characteristics to a new and improved system that better suits the latest international recommendations on employment and unemployment - Monthly Labour Force Survey. Therefore the 2012 data refer to the entire labour force (including the military service) and not to the civilian labour force, as it was before.
- In addition to the transition to a monthly survey, in 2012 a new Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities based on ISIC was implemented as well as a new Standard Classification of Occupations based on ISCO-08. The numbers for 2012 are still reported according to the previous classifications, but the numbers for 2013 are based on the new classifications.
Further information: http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/labour_survey04/labour_force_survey/answer_question_e_2012.pdf. http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications12/economic_activities11/pdf/e_print.pdf.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Italy
Source of data: Since 2003: Ministry of Health - General Directorate of digitalization, health information system and statistics - Office of Statistics. http://www.stage.ministerosalute.it/portale/temi/p2_6.jsp?lingua=italiano&id=3836&area=statisticheSS N&menu=pubb.
Reference period: 1st January.
Coverage:
- Data available for head counts only.
- Since 2003 data refer to public and private hospitals, including private hospitals not accredited by the National Health Service.
Kazakhstan
Source: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Reference period: 31December.
Latvia
Source of data: Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; Statistical Report.
Reference period: 31 December.

Data for full-time equivalent (FTE) not available.
Lithuania
Source of data: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, data of entire annual survey of health establishments.
Reference period: 31st December
Coverage: Data for all hospitals excluding nursing hospitals. Service contracts with non-employed health professionals are excluded. The Annual survey collection includes data on physical persons and full time equivalents. For physical persons: a person is included only if this institution is the main job for this person. If a person is working in several institutions he/she will be presented as a physical person only once. But FTE will be presented for the person in every institution he works. For full time equivalents data on contractual working hours is presented in annual survey: an employee with a full-time employment contract is counted as 1 FTE; depending on the contractual hours an employee could work 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.25, 1.5 FTE.
Luxembourg
Source of data:
- Head Counts: Administrative database on social security registration, survey on physicians working in hospitals (IGSS), provider registration database (National Health Insurance).
- Full Time Equivalents: National Health Insurance.
Coverage: Head counts:
- The definition of heath employment is linked to the SHA provider classification of HP1.
- About half of the hospitals have subcontracting contracts for the cleaning and kitchen auxiliary services. People providing these services are not included. Full Time Equivalents:
- Doctors are not included, since almost all doctors have private offices and it is very difficult to make the link with hospitals based on administrative sources.
- Approximately half of the hospitals have subcontracting contracts for the cleaning and kitchen auxiliary services. People providing these services are not included.
- The staff of the specialised institution 'Centre National de Reeducation Fonctionnelle et de Readaptation de Hamm' is included in data from 2002.
- In 2003: The opening of a general hospital replaced two old private hospitals in July 2003.
- Data for 2008 are estimated.
- In 2008: There was no negotiated staff for some of the hospitals. The rate indicated for “total hospital staff” has been calculated with the staff negotiated for the previous year (for those hospitals only) and should be considered as provisional.
Malta
Source of data: Figures for Hospital Manpower for 2007 comprise only personnel employed in State Hospitals Data sources from 2009 onwards are the establishments themselves, Data collated by the Directorate for Health Information and Research from data received from state and private hospitals. Break in series: 2009
Montenegro
Source of data: The source for all data submitted is the Institute of Public Health. Some additional information can be found in Health Statistical Yearbooks available at http://www.ijzcg.me/.
Reference period: December 31st.
Note: There is no data available for FTE.
Netherlands
Source of data: Statistics Netherlands.
- 1980-2002: survey;
- 2002-2005: Prismant survey;
- 2006 onwards: Annual reports social account.
- 2012: Data based on BIG Register (register of (para)medical professions); SSB database (micro-integrated database of Statistics Netherlands with data from the municipal register, tax register, social security, and business register).
Coverage: Does not include self-employed medical specialists who work in the hospital.
Estimation method:
- Until 2005: The figures present persons employed (FTEs) in general, university and specialised hospitals, including mental hospitals. The data are based on an annual questionnaire among hospitals. All persons paid by the institution, both persons on the payroll and those who are paid by the institution in another way (temporary employees, employees of employment agencies), are included. This means that administrative staff, technicians, maintenance staff, etc., when paid directly by the institution, are included. On the other hand, medical specialists are not all included as these are often self-employed or organised in partnerships per specialty.
- The increase between 1997 and 1998 is due to the inclusion of (out-patient) mental health care institutions that have been merged with mental hospitals into integrated mental hospital institutions. Moreover, the data now comprise annual averages and are no longer data per 31 December.
Break in time series: 2002 and 2006 due to changes in the source.
Norway
Source of data: Statistics Norway; Register-based statistics on employment of health-care personnel.
Reference period: 3rd week of November.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to economically active professionals.
Coverage:
- The figures provided give the number of practising personnel within HP1. There is no guarantee that these professionals actually work in patient care as data refer to education the individuals have rather than the job they hold within the HP structure.
- The health sector in Norway underwent a large reorganisation in 2001. Figures are therefore provided from 2002.
Break in time series: 2009. New calculation method.
Poland
Data not available.
Portugal
Source of data: National Statistical Office - Survey on Hospitals.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- The Hospital Survey began in 1985. This survey covers the whole range of hospitals acting in Portugal: hospitals managed by the National Health Service (public hospitals with universal access), non-public state hospitals (military and prison) and private hospitals.
- Information on full time equivalents is not available.
Break in time series:
- In 1999, a methodological change occurred in this survey. Information regarding qualified nurses and midwives, associate professional nurses and caring staff became available from then on. Therefore, there is a break in the series “Other health professionals employed by hospital” in 1999.
- The category “health care assistants employed in hospital” includes nurse’s assistants and medical care assistants.

Data for “health care assistants employed in hospital” and for “other staff employed in hospital” revised between 1999 and 2012.
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health Management, Annual statistical report N17 “On staff and cadres of health institutions”. http://cnms.md/areas/statistics/anyar/.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign health personnel are not included.
Romania
Source of data: 2000-2006: Ministry of Public Health. 2007: National Institute of Statistics, Activity of Sanitary Units – annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: data as of 31st December.
Coverage: For the period 2000-2006 the data cover only Ministry of Health network. For 2007 Data cover public and private sector. Break in the series: 2007.
Russian Federation
Source of data: Annual reporting form ?30 «Information about medical organization", Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes only data for medical institutions of the Ministry of Health. Data from institutions of other ministries and private sector are not included.
San Marino
Data not available.
Serbia
Source of data: Institute of Public Health of Serbia, National register on health care human resources. Data as of December 31. http://www.batut.org.rs/.
Coverage: Data for Kosovo-Metohija province are not included in the coverage of data for the Republic of Serbia. Data from health institutions under other ministries (military services, prisons, social services) than the Ministry of Health are not included. Data from private health sector are not included.
Deviation from the definition:The method 3) For countries which do not have any detailed information on working hours has been used to convert head counts into FTE data.
Slovakia
Source of data: National Health Information Center.
- “Annual report S (MZ SR) 1 – 01 on network of health care providers” for data up to 2008.
- “Report on network of health care providers” since 2009.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data are available for FTE hospital employment in Hospitals - HP1 (according to the recommendations and definitions following the SHA version 1.0.) in the territory of the Slovak Republic (i.e. general hospitals, specialty hospitals, sanatoriums - i.e. hospitals providing long-term care for the chronically ill and hospitals providing rehabilitation and related services to physically challenged or disabled people).
- There are no data available for head count.
- Total hospital employment includes only health care workers. No data exist regarding other staff.
Break in time series:
- 2009: Data source changed from “Annual report S (MZ SR) 1 – 01 on network of health care providers” for years 2008 and earlier to “Report on network of health care providers” in 2009.
Slovenia
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia, National Health Care Providers Database. With this database, data on hours worked (FTE) and jobs (number of contracts) were not available.
Reference period: 31st December.
Spain
Source of data:
- Up to 2009: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equity from Statistics on Health Establishments Providing Inpatient Care (ESCRI). http://www.msssi.gob.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/estHospiInternado/inforAnual/homeESCRI.htm.
- Since 2010: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equity from Specialised Care Information System (Sistema de Informacion de Atencion Especializada - SIAE).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- All public and private hospitals in Spain are included.
- Number of physicians employed by hospital: doctors in training (interns and resident) are included.
- Other health professionals: includes another health staff (university degree or adequate diploma) working in the hospital (e.g. physiotherapists, psychologists, pharmacists, etc.).
- Other staff: includes non-health staff working in hospital (e.g. administrative staff, etc.).
- FTE data are not available.
Sweden
Data not available.
Switzerland
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; hospitals statistics; yearly census.
Deviation from definition: Self-employed persons (mostly physicians) are not included.
Estimation method: Until 2009, the hospital employment estimate was made with data on professions from 75% of hospitals.
Break in time series: Hospital statistics have been revised (data year 2010); all categories can be identified; FTE based on yearly average.
Note: The method used for FTE calculation is based on detailed data on contractual working hours.
Tajikistan
Data not available.

TFYR Macedonia
Source of data: Institute for Public Health –Skopje. Report for hospitals (3-21-60).
Reference period: 31st December. Methodological change in inclusion and exclusion criteria was introduced in line with EUROSTAT in 2004-2007.
Turkey
Data not available.
Turkmenistan
Data not available.
Ukraine
Source of data: Centre of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health. Reporting form 20 "Report of health care institutions” of the Ministry of Health, other agencies and private entities.
Reference period: 31 December.
Break in time series: 2009, before 2009 data included only health professionals working in the institutions reporting to the Ministry of Health, starting from 2009 data coverage is complete.
United Kingdom
Source of data: Office for National Statistics.
- 2009 onwards: ONS Labour Force Survey (LFS).
Reference period: LFS data are for April to June of each year to fulfill Eurostat’s requirement that all countries in the European Union have a Labour Force Survey based on all calendar quarters.
Coverage: Number of people employed (headcount) in the UK in both public and private sectors in either a main or second job in UK SIC (92) sub-class 85.11 'hospital activities' (equivalent to ISIC Rev.3 class 8511). Estimation method (2009-2013):
- Data may be an underestimate of true figures due to problems with the current coding methodology; however, these are the only figures currently available.
- Previous time series has been deleted due to inaccuracies discovered when the coding methodology was recently changed. The previous time series included staff working in residential care facilities in the figures and was consequently inaccurate.
Estimation method: 2014. The Office of National Statistics (ONS) re-weighted the LFS data using revised UK level population estimates consistent with the 2011 census and population projections.
Uzbekistan
Source of data: Institute of Health and Medical Statistics, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reporting form 15-SSV “Report on Health personnel by categories”.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: data include personnel working within the system of the Ministry of Health only.