• Practising dentists, per 100 000 population (Line chart)
  • Practising dentists, per 100 000 (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European database on human and technical resources for health

Indicators: 250
Updated: 23 September 2016
Downloads: 6690

HlthRes-DB provides a wide range of statistics on human and technical resources for health and offers data on non-monetary health care resources collected through the joint work of the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and WHO/Europe. It contains nearly 200 indicators on human and technical resources for health.

Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.

Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.

HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.

Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.

More information: http://www.euro.who.int/en/data-and-evidence/databases/european-database-on-human-and-technical-resources-for-health-hlthres-db
Indicator notes
Practising dentists, per 100 000 population
Indicator code: pract.dent.rate This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator "Practising dentists, total number".

Practising dentists provide services directly to patients. They include stomatologists/dental surgeons.
- Persons who have completed studies in dentistry / stomatology at university level (granted by an adequate diploma) and who are licensed to practice
- Interns (with an adequate diploma and providing services under supervision of other dentists or dental specialists during their postgraduate internship in a health care facility)
- Salaried and self-employed dentists delivering services irrespectively of the place of service provision
- Foreign dentists licensed to practice and actively practising in the country
- Students who have not yet graduated
- Dentists working in administration, research and in other posts that exclude direct contact with the patients
- Unemployed dentists and retired dentists
- Dentists working abroad
Note: The number should be at the end of the calendar year.
Country notes
Source: Ministry of Health.
Note: It is difficult to get accurate numbers because of growing private sector.
Source of data: Republican Research and Information Health Centre and the National Statistic Service of the Republic of Armenia, Report form of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia ? 17 “Health employment”, http://healthinfo.am/Statistical%20Report.htm, Statistical book, Armenia, English version (zip) 2009.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: Data on foreign dentists licenced to practice or professionally active are not included due to lack of data. Data on interns and residents are included in the category “Other specialties not elsewhere classified” for physicians by category.
Source of data:
- 1970-2005: Osterreichische Arztekammer - Vollerhebung / Austrian Medical Chamber - total of members;
- 2006-ongoing: Osterreichische Zahnarztekammer - Vollerhebung / Austrian Chamber of Dentistry (includes "Dentisten" and physicians) - total of members. Dentists have their own professional association since January 1st, 2006.
Reference period: December (reference day varies).
- includes dentists in activity;
- includes the whole medical field (private practices, hospitals,... );
- includes sub-specialties like e.g. odontologists, stomatologists and orthodontologists;
- excludes dentists without dental practice (in industry, administration, research,...);
- excludes dentists working abroad and includes dentists who are citizens of a Member State;
- excludes "Dentisten" since 2003; approbation for "Dentisten" (state license) was only granted up to 1975.
Source of data: The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Reference period: data as of December 31
Source of data: National Statistics Committee of Belarus http://belstat.gov.by/; National Archives of the Republic of Belarus http://narb.by/
Reporting period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: Data on foreign dentists are not included because this information is not available.
Break in time series: 2007, 2010. Dental interns are included in this category from 2007 to 2009.
Source of data: CTI – INAMI.
Reference period: 31st December.
Break in time series:
- Data from 2000: Number of dentists with a minimal volume of patient contacts, excluding non-practising dentists, retired professionals and professionals working abroad. Stomatologists are included in the number of physicians.
- 1985-1999 data: Number of dentists who carried out at least one reimbursed medical act during the year.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source: Public Health Institute of FB&H - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in FB&H Public Health Institute of Republica Srpska - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in Republica Srpska
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey.
Reference period: 31 December. Metadata information: All dentists and maxillo-facial surgeons who worked on a basic labour contract in outpatient and inpatient establishments, as well as those who practice in other heath establishments - centres for emergency medical care, centres for transfusion haematology, homes for medical and social care for children, Hygiene-epidemiological inspections and others. On 01.07.2000 Bulgaria started its Healthcare Reform and financing of curative medical and dental care by the National Health Insurance Fund came into force. Recovery of the private practice gave an opportunity to dentists to practice in individual and group practices for dental care.
Break in time series: 2000.
Source of data: Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Health Manpower Register
Coverage: Private dentists and stomatologists have been included since 1993 and maxillofacial surgeons since 2009.
Break in time series: 1993 and 2009.
Source of data: Statistical Service of Cyprus, Public sector administrative sources & Pancyprian Dental Association for the Private Sector. Validity of the source: For the years 1985, 1987, 1995 and 2000 figures were obtained from the Census of Doctors, Dentists and Clinics.
Reference period: 31st December.
Source of data: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic; Registry of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Until 1999, physicians working in other central organs not included. Since the year 2000, data cover physicians in all health services. Break in the series: 2000.
Source of data: Statens Serum Institut, Labour Register for Health Personnel.
Reference period: 31st December.
- The term of dentist covers all persons qualified as a dentist with or without authorization to practice independently in the country.
- Figures cover dentists actively working in municipal dental services, in private practice, in hospitals/institutions, in the military and in dental colleges.
Source of data:
- Annual reports, National Institute for Health Development, Department of Health Statistics.
- 1980-2002 published by Statistics Estonia, interns included (http://pub.stat.ee/px-web.2001/I_Databas/Social_life/05Health/04Health_care_institutions/04Health_c are_institutions.asp).
Reference period:
- 1980-2012: 31st of December.
- Since 2013: November. Break in the series: 1991,2005 and 2013.
- Until 1990, in addition to health personnel employed in the system of the Ministry of Health, the data include the personnel who worked in health care institutions of the Estonian Railway, Estonian Airway and those belonging to the closed establishments of the Soviet Union.
- The total number of physicians from the year 1991 includes only the data of the Ministry of Health and the Estonian Railway.
- Until 2004, the data of practising dentists were based on their educational qualifications.
- From 2005, the head count distribution is made according to their main occupational activity.
- The data collection methodology was changed in 2013. Aggregated data collection was replaced with data collection on a personal basis. From 2013, the predominant (main) area of practice is based on an occupation with the highest workload.
Source of data: THL Health Personnel Statistics; National Institute for Health and Welfare. The data for 2000 and 2005 onwards are based on the Employment Register kept by Statistics Finland.
Reference period: Data refer to information for the whole year.
Source of data: ASIP- RPPS (Repertoire Partage des Professionnels de Sante). http://esante.gouv.fr/espace-cps/editeurs/le-rpps.
Reference period: 31st December.
- Data refer to metropolitan France and D.O.M. (overseas departments).
- Data cover only dentists providing direct care to patients.
Data not available. Health statistics do not contain such data.
Source of data: German Dental Association, Membership statistics of the dental chambers; http://www.gbe_x001E_bund.de or http://www.bzaek.de.
Reference period: 31st December.
- Data contain the number of dentists that are actively practising in dental care and provide services directly to patients in dental offices (head-count data).
- The data exclude qualified dentists working abroad or working in administration, research and industry positions.
- Unemployed and retired dentists and students who have not yet graduated are also not included.
- Physicians with specialty “dental, oral and maxillo-facial surgery” are counted in Germany as physicians (specialists) and not as dentists.
- The number of dentists includes those undergoing further training for specialisation.
Data not available.
Source of data:
- Up to 1999: Ministry of Health.
- Between 2000 and 2001: Data are estimates from the National Institute for Strategic Health Research (ESKI) based on the Operational registration of the Hungarian Medical Association.
- Between 2002 and 2006: Operational registration of the Hungarian Medical Association.
- From 2007: Office of Health Care Authorisation and Administrative Procedures.
Reference period: 31st December.
- Practising dentists reported to the National Register of Physicians.
- Included: Specialised and non-specialised dentists, stomatologists, odontologists, orthodontologists.
- Since 2000, the registry of physicians has been prepared by the Hungarian Medical Association (MOK). In the first two years of the transition (until year 2002), the Central Statistical Office could not provide data. Therefore, these data should be treated very cautiously because of the legal and the technical system differences of the two registrations.
Break in time series: 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2008.
- In 2005, the Hungarian Medical Association (MOK) performed data cleaning in the database deleting persons due to retirement, death, employment abroad or leaving the profession.
- From 2007, the Office of Health Authorisation and Administrative Procedures (EEKH) – unlike in the previous years – provided data not on the basis of last acquired specialisation but according to the dominant specialisation practiced during medical work.
- In 2008, the Office of Health Authorisation and Administrative Procedures significantly revised the data quality of the registry with by calling for refinement, according to the 1997. CLIV. Act.
Source of data:
- 2011 and onwards: Icelandic Dentists’ Association.
- 2001 - 2010: The Directorate of Health - Register of dentists.
- Until 2001: Icelandic Dentists’ Association.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Before 2011:
- Includes: Dentists who are 70 year old and younger with a permanent residence in Iceland (Icelanders or foreign).
- Practising dentists - may refer more to professionally active dentists (but the group of non-practising dentists is small). As of 2011:
- Number of individuals registered as practising dentists by the Icelandic Dentists?Association.
Break in time series: 2011.
Data not available.
Source of data: The data are based on the Labour Force Survey which is conducted routinely by the Central Bureau of Statistics and includes persons who had worked for at least one hour during the week before the survey, for pay, profit or other consideration. Occupation is determined by the type of work performed by the interviewed person at his place of work, without regard to what he studied if his work is not in that field. The classification of occupations is based on the classification of the International Labour Office (ILO): International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO 88.
- Data are for all practising dentists.
- The sample of practising dentists is relatively small and therefore the data are subject to large variations due to sample errors and wide confidence intervals. Any data analysis should be carried out with caution.
Estimation method: Moving average of three years (numbers for previous, current and next years) was made in order to diminish the fluctuations in the numbers. For example, the number of practicing dentists in 1996 is an average of 1995-1997. The number for 2011 is an average of 2010-2012.
Break in time series:
- From January 2012, the Central Bureau of Statistics has made a transition from a quarterly system of measuring labour force characteristics to a new and improved system that better suits the latest international recommendations on employment and unemployment - Monthly Labour Force Survey. Therefore the 2012 (original) data refer to the entire labour force (including the military service) and not to the civilian labour force, as it was before.
- In addition to the transition to a monthly survey, in 2012 a new Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities based on ISIC was implemented as well as a new Standard Classification of Occupations based on ISCO-08. The (original) numbers for 2012 are still reported according to the previous classifications, but the (original) numbers for 2013 are based on the new classifications.
Further information: http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/labour_survey04/labour_force_survey/answer_question_e_2012.pdf. http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications12/economic_activities11/pdf/e_print.pdf.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Data not available. Data are available for "professionally active" dentists (including dentists in administrative, academic or research functions who are not providing direct care to patients).
Source: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Reference period: 31December.
Note: Sharp decline after 1995 was caused by the beginning of privatization and subsequent incomplete reporting from private dentist clinics. Since 1999 special efforts have been made to collect data also from the private sector. The situation is gradually improving however in 2000 nine regions (oblasts) and in 2001 three regions out of fourteen failed to report complete data.
Source of data:
- Since 2005: Health Inspectorate of Latvia; Medical Persons' Register.
- 2004 and earlier: Health Statistics and Medical Technologies State Agency.
Reference period: 31 December. Break in series: 2005: Change in data source.
Source of data: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, data of entire annual survey of health establishments. Report “Health Statistics of Lithuania”, available from http://sic.hi.lt/html/en/hsl.htm
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: The number of practising dentists at the end of the year includes all professionally active dentists excluding those working in administration, health education and research. The number of professionally active dentists is collected by annual survey of health care establishments. Response rate for private health care establishments is about 70%. In 2009 there were 1461 private establishments with license for dental care, of which 478 have not responded to annual reports. Due to non-response of part of private health care establishments the number of dentists could increase by approximately 400 persons (or 17%). But such estimation is not done as it is not clear how many of not responded institutions are actually working. Break in series: 1997 when compulsory annual survey of private health establishments had started, and as most of the private health care establishments were dentist institutions, the number of dentists had increased.
Source of data: Direction de la Sante - Service des statistiques. Register of doctors and health professionals.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Until 1999:
- Includes dentists working in administration and research. Stomatologists included since 1998.
- Retired dentists are not included. However, the end of activity of self-employed dentists is often noted with some time lag. From 2000:
- Dentists who do not work in direct contact with patients (laboratories, administration, R&D, etc) are excluded, and interns are included. From 2005:
- Stomatologists are still considered dentists, but it should be noted that stomatologists from Luxembourg are not synonymous with dentist-doctors (they are fully specialised in stomatology).
- Dental surgeons are included.
Break in time series: 2000 and 2005.
Source of data: Malta Medical Council Register data. Collation at Directorate for Health Information and Research. Data for practising dentists is available from end 2009.
Source of data: The source for all data submitted is the Institute of Public Health. Some additional information can be found in Health Statistical Yearbooks available at http://www.ijzcg.me/
Reference period: December 31st.
Coverage: Only data from the public sector. Since 01.01.2008 Oral health care service was moved from Primary health centers and during 2008 it was organized as private service. . Only dentists from secondary and tertiary health care level were included.
Break in time series:
- 2008: During year 2008 oral health services were reorganized as private service and dentists working in primary care are not included in the reported number of dentists any more. Only dentists from secondary and tertiary care level are included.
Data not available.
North Macedonia
Data not available.
Source of data: Statistics Norway; Statistics on health-care personnel.
- From 2002 onwards: Statistics Norway; Register-based statistics on employment of health-care personnel.
- Up to 2001: National Board of Health.
Reference period: 3rd week of November.
- Data up to 2001 show FTE; data from 2002 show head count.
Break in time series:
- 2002. Comparable time-series cannot be delivered for the years preceding 2002.
- 2009: change in the coverage.
Source of data: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of National Defence.
Reference period: 31st December.
- Data regarding dentists are based on head counts.
- Dentists are counted in the main workplace.
- Since 2003: Dentists working in the Ministries of National Defence and Interior are included.
- Since 2004: Dentists working as teaching and administration staff are excluded.
- Since 2005: Dentists working in private medical practice are included.
Breaks in time series:
- Since 2003: Dentists working in the Ministries of National Defence and Interior are included.
- Since 2004: Dentists working as teaching and administration staff are excluded.
- Since 2005: Dentists working in private medical practice are included.
Data not available. (Data available for all dentists licensed to practice only.)
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health Management, Annual statistical report N17 “On staff and cadres of health institutions”. http://cnms.md/areas/statistics/anyar/.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign dentists are not included.
Source of data: National Institute of Statistics, Activity of Sanitary Units – annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: data as of 31st December.
Coverage: From 1970 to 1998, data refer only to the public sector. From 1999 the data cover all sanitary dentists from public and private sector.
- Dentists (ISCO/COR 2222) are defined as the persons who have completed studies in stomatology at university level and who are licensed to practice. Dentists’ tasks include: making diagnosis, giving necessary dental treatment, giving surgical, medical and other forms of treatment for different types of dental and oral diseases and disorders, establish curative and preventive dental measurement, relished reports and participate to scientific communication in oral health and dental care.
- The dentists who work in education field as teachers and dentists from health insurance field are not included as practising dentists. It was impossible to exclude dentists who have administrative function in health units because separate registrations do not exist.
- Were excluded from dentists: students, unemployed dentists in health field, retirement dentists, and dentists working abroad, dentists working in sales field even if they work in medical sales (ex. medical drugs). Until 2007 dentists working in administration, research and in other posts that exclude direct contact with patients could not be totally excluded. Break in series: 1999.
Russian Federation
Source of data: Annual reporting form ?17 «Information about the medical and pharmaceutical personnel", Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes only data for medical institutions of the Ministry of Health. Data from institutions of other ministries and private sector are not included.
Deviation from the definition: Interns are not included.
San Marino
Data not available.
Data not available.
Source of data: National Health Information Center. Data are provided by the Register of Health professionals, as of 31 Dec. 2007.
- Recent data are available only for the year 2007. The new Register of Health Professionals was introduced into operation as of 31 Dec. 2007. Update of Register is not made every year, and therefore data for practising dentists for 2005, 2006 and 2008-2013 are not available.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Stomatologists (dentists practising only in basic field of activity "stomatology") are included.
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia; National Health Care Providers Database.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Practising dentists are those working in the health-care sector (primary and secondary care), including public health institutes and the health insurance institute.
Data not available. (Data based on Economically Active Population Survey and referring to CNO-11 codes at 4-digit level (Spanish equivalence of ISCO-08) are not available.)
- Up to 2010: Practising dentists are included in the number of practising physicians at 3 digit level of the National Occupations Classification (CNO-94), the Spanish equivalence of ISCO-88 in the Economically Active Population Survey. (Data are available for the total number of dentists licensed to practice.)
Source of data: National Board of Health and Welfare, National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
- Sweden uses NACE-codes to identify practising dentists (i.e. active within the health-care system) and therefore cannot exclude dentists who are seeing patients from those who do not within the health-care system.
- 100 per cent coverage.
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; Swiss Dental Association, Bern.
Coverage: Dentists with private practices who contract with social insurance; it can be considered as appropriate full coverage.
Data not available. Data are available for "professionally active" dentists (including dentists in administrative, academic or research functions who are not providing direct care to patients).
Source of data: Report from of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan. ? 17 “Health employment”
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes data from institutions under the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan, data from other Ministries or sectors not included.
Deviation from definition: Prior to 2010, data include dental technicians and casters.
Break in time series:
- 2004: Decrease in numbers of dentists is a consequence of the state programme Health on re-organization of the health institutions with the purpose of rational use of human resources for health in the country.
- 2010: Prior to 2010, dental technicians and casters were included in dentists, they are excluded since 2010.
Source of data: Centre of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health. Report form ? 17 “Health employment” of the Ministry of Health, other agencies and private entities.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: health professionals of dental medicine with secondary special education (“zubnoj vrach”) are included in the total number of dentists. Data on foreign dentists not included.
Break in time series: 2009, before 2009 data included only health professionals working in the institutions reporting to the Ministry of Health, starting from 2009 data coverage is complete.
United Kingdom
Source of data:
- England: General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) from the Annual Abstract of Statistics, Hospital & Community Health Services (HCHS), Dentists from Health & Social Care Information Centre: http://www.hscic.gov.uk. Medical and Dental Workforce Census;
- Northern Ireland: Hospital and Community dentists data from Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, and General Dental Practitioner data from the Business Services Organisation;
- Scotland: GDP data are sourced from the Management Information and Dental Accounting System (MIDAS), and data for HCHS dentists are sourced from the medical and dental workforce census (MEDMAN) and the Scottish Workforce Information Standard System.
- Wales: Welsh Government: http://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/?topic=Health+and+social+care&lang=en.
Reference period:
- England & Wales: data are a combination of hospital dentists and primary care (high street) dentists. The hospital dentists are as at 30 September, while the primary care dentists are those providing NHS services in the financial year April – March.
- Scotland: data are as at 30th September each year.
- Northern Ireland: hospital dentists are counted in September and general dental practitioners are counted in October.
- Does not include private sector.
- Data for Financial years i.e. 01-04-07 to 31-03-08 will be presented for 2007.
- Data are a combination of General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) and Hospital and Community Health Services (HCHS) dentists.
- Due to the introduction of the new dental contractual arrangements in England and Wales (01-04-06) and a revised methodology for counting dentists, data for England and Wales are only provided for 2007 onwards as these data are not comparable with previous years. For this reason, previous years for the UK have not been submitted.
- The revised methodology covers GDPs in England and Wales and counts the number of dentists with NHS activity recorded via an FP17 claim form each year ending 31st March.
- Scotland: Includes all General Dentals Service dentists (Salaried and Non-salaried principals, assistants and vocational trainees) Dental Hospital, Community and Public Health services (HCHS) staff of the NHS.
- Northern Ireland: General Dental Practitioner data include principal, associate dentists and salaried dentists - assistants and trainees are excluded prior to 2011. Figures from 2011 onwards have been revised and now include principals, associates, salaries, plus assistants and vocational trainees (as at April for these years). A figure for 2014 cannot be provided due to a recording issue following the implementation of a new human resource IT system.
Deviation from the definition:
- There will be dentists in the UK working as both GDPs and HCHS dentists. These are only counted once in Scotland, however, they are unable to be separated in England. In Wales and Northern Ireland some double counting may also occur.
- Dentists may also be counted twice if they have contracts in more than one country of the UK.
- Dentists in Scotland may be counted more than once if they work in different health boards.
Estimation method:
- Wales: 2014 Welsh data was not available in time for this collection and so the previous year’s figure was used instead. This will be updated with the correct data in next year’s collection.
Source of data: Institute of Health and Medical Statistics, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reporting form 15-SSV “Report on Health personnel by categories”.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: data include personnel working within the system of the Ministry of Health only.