• Medical graduates, total number (Line chart)
Data set notes
European database on human and technical resources for health

Indicators: 250
Updated: 23 September 2016
Downloads: 4395

HlthRes-DB provides a wide range of statistics on human and technical resources for health and offers data on non-monetary health care resources collected through the joint work of the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and WHO/Europe. It contains nearly 200 indicators on human and technical resources for health.

Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.

Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.

HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.

Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.

More information: http://www.euro.who.int/en/data-and-evidence/databases/european-database-on-human-and-technical-resources-for-health-hlthres-db
Indicator notes
Medical graduates, total number
Indicator code: grad.phys

Number of students who have graduated in medicine from medical faculties or similar institutions, i.e., who have completed basic medical education in a given year.
Exclusion
- Graduates in pharmacy, dentistry / stomatology, public health and epidemiology
- Individuals who have completed post-graduate studies or training in medicine
Note: In the European Union, a Directive has defined basic medical training as comprising a total of at least six years of study or 5,500 hours of theoretical and practical training provided by, or under the supervision of, a university (article 24, Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council).
Country notes
Albania
Source: Ministry of High School.
Deviation from definition: Epidemiologists are included in this definition.
Armenia
Source of data: National Statistical Service (NSS) of Armenia , http://www.armstat.am/en/.
Reference period: The end of the school year.
Coverage: Graduates with foreign nationalities are not included.
Break in time series: Until 2008 data are provided on the medical graduates from the Yerevan State Medical University M. Heratsi. Since 2008 the data on the number of graduates from six private medical schools are also included.
Note: In 2012 the decrease in the number of medical graduates related to the issue of payment for the learning process and the migration of young people.
Austria
Source of data: Statistics Austria, Higher Education Statistics.
Coverage: Data include medical graduates with foreign citizenship. Only a “primary graduation” is included (“Erstabschlusse”), which is defined as the first degree in a particular discipline. “Subsequent graduations” in the same discipline (“Folgeabschlusse”) are excluded (Master studies, Doctorates).
Break in time series: Date include dentists up to 1997. Data include medical graduates form private universities from academic year 2007/2008 on.
Azerbaijan
Source of data: The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Reference period: data as of December 31
Note: foreign graduates are included.
Belarus
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of statistical handbooks (1980 009gg.) And primary forms of non-centralized state statistical observations provided medical schools (1993 to 2011).
Break in time series: 1990, 1993. Data for 1980-1989 and for 1991-92 included the dental faculty and alumni.
Belgium
Source of data: Communaute francaise et Vlaamse Gemeenschap.
Coverage:
- The number of students graduating every year from medical faculties include those graduating in stomatology.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federal office of statistic
Bulgaria
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey
Reference period: from 15.11 of the previous year (t-1) to 14.11 of the index year (t). E.g. data for year 2010 contains number of graduates from 15.11.2009 to 14.11.2010.

The specialties for medical doctors, dentists, pharmacists, midwives and nursing are taught in public higher schools. Ministry of Education and Science is determining annually plan scheme (limits for new entrants) for each specialty in public higher schools, which varies at different years according to national needs. Thus, the number of enrolments and respectively graduates are varying during the different years. The reported data represents the real number of graduations.
-.
Croatia
Source of data: Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia
Reference period: From the year 2008.data are provided by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. Data refers not on calendar, but on academic years. For example, registered data for the year 2008, refers to the 2007/2008 academic year (01.10.2007 – 30.09.2008)
Cyprus
No Universities offering graduate studies on medicine existed in Cyprus up to 2013.
Czechia
Source of data: Ministry of education, youth and sports.
Coverage: Foreigners who graduated in the Czech Republic are included since 2001.
Denmark
Source of data: Statens Serum Institut, Register of Authorised Health Personnel.
Coverage: The number of new doctors receiving an authorisation.
Estonia
Source of data:
- Until 2004: State Statistical Office, annual reporting.
- Since 2005: Ministry of Education and Research, Estonian Education Information System (EHIS).
Reference period: Given year.
Finland
Source of data: VALVIRA. National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. Register on Qualified Health Care Personnel, number of persons who have received their qualification in the calendar year.
Reference period: Calendar year.
France
Source of data: Ministere de l’enseignement superieur et de la recherche, Sous-direction des systemes d'information et des etudes statistiques. For further information: http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/pid24777/les-publications-du-m.e.s.r.html.
Coverage: Data are given for metropolitan France and overseas departments and territories.
Break in time series: From 2008 onwards, there is a break in the series resulting from a new process in calculating the head counts of the students.
Georgia
Source of data: In 2012 – 2013 the National cemter for educational quality enhancement served as a data source. The number of graduates includes dentists, there is no way to distinquish dentists from the total number.Numbers include both, public and private sectors
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia. Data for those two regions are unavailable.
Germany
Source of data: Federal Statistical Office, Statistics of higher education (college/university exams); Statistisches Bundesamt, Fachserie 11, Reihe 4.2, table ZUS-04, http://www.destatis.de or http://www.gbe-bund.de.
Coverage:
- Data refer to passed university examinations. Bachelors’ degree and masters’ degree in human medicine are excluded.
- Graduates in pharmacy and dentistry are excluded.
Greece
Source of data: Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.).
Coverage: All the data refers to graduates from Greek universities. Data for 1986-1992 are not available as figures cannot be retrieved from publications. Data for 2000 and 2002-2004 are not available, as the number of graduates from some medical schools is missing.
Hungary
Source of data: Up to 2012: Central Statistical Office (KSH), Statistical Yearbook. http://www.ksh.hu. From 2013: Office of Health Care Authorisation and Administrative Procedures Full title of the database: Basic register.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: From 1990 onwards, the data are derived from the “Report on the number of physicians, dentists, pharmacists and specialised clinical psychologists with granted diploma” collection.
Iceland
Source of data:
- As of 1996: Statistics Iceland, Register of graduations.
- 1980-1995: Directorate of Health.
Reference period: As of 1996, the calendar year.
Coverage:
- Students who graduated in medicine (who have completed basic medical education) from the medical faculty of the University of Iceland (the only one in Iceland) in a given year.
- Data exclude: graduates in pharmacy, dentistry/stomatology, public health and epidemiology, and individuals who have completed post-graduate studies or training in medicine.
Ireland
Source of data: Higher Education Authority.
Reference period: Calendar year.
Coverage: Universities, Institutes of Technology and Designated Institutions.
Israel
Source of data: Central Bureau of Statistics. The data are based on personal records of degree recipients received from all Universities in Israel which include information on subjects of study and degree received.
Coverage: Medical graduates include recipients of second degrees in Medicine (MD). Data do not include programs intended exclusively for foreign students.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Italy
Source of data: Ministry of Education; “Survey on Graduates and Exams” carried out yearly by the Ministry by collecting data from Italian Universities (http://www.miur.it).
Kazakhstan
Source: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Latvia
Source of data: Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) since 2008.
Coverage: The annual surveys collected and compiled by the Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) are as follows:
- on higher education institutions and colleges. Break in series: 2008: Change in data source.
Note: Source of data prior to 2008 not clear.
Lithuania
Source of data: Statistics Lithuania, data of entire annual survey of education institutions. Report “Health Statistics of Lithuania”, available from http://sic.hi.lt/html/en/hsl.htm. The number of graduates fluctuates starting from 1992 due to political and economical changes in the country, changes in the status of medical institutes (to universities) and medical schools (to colleges) and changes in studying programmes. Therefore, every year different number of groups of students of medical specialties is starting the education (and after some years graduating).
Luxembourg
Data not available. The University of Luxembourg does not offer full training in medicine.
Malta
Source of data: University of Malta.
Montenegro
Data not available.
Netherlands
Source of data: Statistics of Netherlands, Statistics of university education.
Coverage: The number of medical graduates in universities is based on the “integrated higher education project”. In this project, Statistics Netherlands is working together with the Information Management Group (IBG), Higher Professional Education Council (HBO-Raad), Association of Dutch Universities (VSNU) and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW).
Norway
Source of data: Statistics Norway.
- Statistics Norway collects student data from the administrative systems of the various tertiary institutions. The administrative systems in tertiary institutions create data files in the format specified by Statistics Norway. Information on completed doctoral degrees is collected from NIFU (http://www.nifustep.no/English/Pages/default.aspx).
- Tertiary graduation statistics include all individuals who have completed a degree of 2 years or longer from an educational institution classified by the Standard Industrial Classification as a tertiary institution. Registration of completed educational activities occurs during the period 1 October in year x, 30 September in year x+1.
- See http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/02/40/eksuvh_en/ and then 'About the statistics'.
Coverage: Complete coverage as statistics are based on enumeration of graduates in tertiary education. Sampling errors and non-response errors do not exist.
Break in time series: Individually based data on completed education have been published annually since they were first collected in 1973/74 (academic year). Most variables are comparable, but some have changed. The revised Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/90/nos_c751_en/) recoded education courses to enable comparison of newer and older data (also including a recoding to ISCED-97). While education courses are reasonably comparable over time, other variables are not (e.g. coding of institution types).
Poland
Source of data:
- Until 1990: publication of the Ministry of National Education, “Higher education, basic data”.
- From 1990: Central Statistical Office, reports S-10.
Break in time series: 1990 due to change of data source.
Portugal
Source of data:
- Since 2011: Directorate General of Statistics of Education and Science, Ministry of Education and Science.
- Between 2006 and 2010: Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education.
- Up to 2005: Ministry of Education.
Coverage:
- Data represent the total number of graduates.
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health Management, Annual statistical report N17 “On staff and cadres of health institutions”. http://cnms.md/areas/statistics/anyar/.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign graduates are not included.
Romania
Source of data: Ministry of Education for the period 1990-1997 data on graduates and National Institute of Statistics since 1998 till now, Activity of Education Units (Statistical data on tertiary education) – annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: academic year. Break in the series: 1996 (Since 1996 including private sector).
San Marino
Data not available.
Serbia
Source of data: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia.
Coverage: Data for Kosovo-Metohija province are not included in the coverage of data for the Republic of Serbia.
Slovakia
Source of data: National Health Information Center (submitted data are from the Institute of Information and Prognosis of Education, http://www.uips.sk).
Slovenia
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia ia, Health Statistics Yearbook.
Reference period: 31st December.
Spain
Source of data:
- Since 2011: Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports from University Education Statistic. http://www.mecd.gob.es/educacion-mecd/areas-educacion/universidades/estadisticas-informes/estadistic as/alumnado.html.
- Up to 2010: National Statistics Institute (INE). University Education Statistic. http://www.ine.es/jaxi/menu.do?type=pcaxis&path=%2Ft13%2Fp405&file=inebase&L=0.
Sweden
Source of data: National Board of Health and Welfare. National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
Switzerland
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; hospital statistics, statistics of high-level schools, human medicine degree; yearly census.

TFYR Macedonia
Source of data: State Statistical Office (SSO), Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia.
Reference period: 31st December.
Turkey
Source of data: General Directorate for Health Services, Ministry of Health and ESPC Higher Education Statistics.
Reference period: End of the academic year.
Coverage: Data refer to medical school graduates having graduated after a 6-year basic medical education at university.
Turkmenistan
Source of data: Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan.
Ukraine
Source of data: Center of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health. Reporting Form 2-3NK "Report of higher education at the beginning of the school year."
Reference period: end of school year.
United Kingdom
Source of data: 2002-11 data revised due to new supplier, Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA). Data will continue to come from HESA from now on. 1992-2001 Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), ‘UK Graduate Output 1991/92 to 2012/13’.
Reference period: Period covers 1st August to 31st July.
Coverage: UK. Methodology: Data are restricted to only include those who qualified.