• Physicians graduated per 100 000 Physicians graduated per 100 000 (Line chart)
  • Physicians graduated per 100 000 Physicians graduated per 100 000 (Bar chart)
  • Physicians graduated per 100 000 Physicians graduated per 100 000 (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European Health for All database

Indicators: 618
Updated: 24 January 2024

The following abbreviations are used in the indicator titles:
•    SDR: age-standardized death rates (see HFA-DB user manual/Technical notes, page 13, for details)
•    FTE: full-time equivalent
•    PP: physical persons
•    PPP$: purchasing power parities expressed in US $, an internationally comparable scale reflecting the relative domestic purchasing powers of currencies.

Indicator notes
Physicians graduated per 100 000
Indicator code: E360301.T This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator \"Number of physicians graduated in given year\".

Number of students who have graduated in medicine from medical faculties or similar institutions, i.e., who have completed basic medical education in a given year.

Exclusion - Graduates in pharmacy, dentistry / stomatology, public health and epidemiology - Individuals who have completed post-graduate studies or training in medicine

Note: In the European Union, a Directive has defined basic medical training as comprising a total of at least six years of study or 5,500 hours of theoretical and practical training provided by, or under the supervision of, a university (article 24, Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council)._
Country/Area notes
Source: Ministry of High School.
Deviation from definition: Epidemiologists are included in this definition.
Source of data: Statistics Austria, Higher Education Statistics.
Coverage: Data exclude foreign medical graduates. Include dentists (up to 1997).
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of statistical handbooks
(1980 009gg.) And primary forms of non-centralized state statistical observations provided medical
schools (1993 to 2011).
Break in time series: 1990, 1993.
Data for 1980-1989 and for 1991-92 included the dental faculty and alumni.
Source of data: Communaute francaise et Vlaamse Gemeenschap.
- The number of students graduating every year from medical faculties include stomatology.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federal office of statistic
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey
Reference period: 31st December
The specialties for medical doctors, dentists, pharmacists, midwives and nursing are taught in
public higher schools. Ministry of Education, Youth and Science is determining annually plan scheme
(limits for new entrants) for each specialty in public higher schools, which varies at different
years according to national needs. Thus, the number of enrolments and respectively graduates are
varying during the different years. The reported data represents the real number of graduations.
For 1985, 1986, and 1995 ? excluding foreign students.
Source of data:ÿCroatian Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia
Data not available.
Czech Republic

Source of data: Ministry of education, youth and sports.
Coverage: Foreigners who graduated in the Czech Republic are included since 2001.
Source of data: National Board of Health, Register of Authorised Health Personnel.
Coverage: The number of new doctors receiving an authorisation.
Source of data:
- Until 2004: State Statistical Office, annual reporting.
- Since 2005: Ministry of Education and Research, Estonian Education Information System (EHIS)
Reference period: Given year.
Source of data: VALVIRA. National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health. Register on
Qualified Health Care Personnel, number of persons who have received their qualification in the
calendar year.
Reference period: Calendar year.
Source of data: Ministere de l?education nationale, de l?enseignement superieur et de la recherche.
Direction de l?evaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (DEPP).
For further information:
Coverage: Data come from a survey carried out in universities aiming at compiling information on the
number of degrees valid at the national level, in metropolitan France and overseas departments and
Source of data: Ministry of Labour Health and Social Affairs
of Georgia and include both, public and private sectors
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia.
Data for those two regions are unavailable.

Source of data: Federal Statistical Office, Statistics of higher education (college/university
exams); Statistisches Bundesamt, Fachserie 11, Reihe 4.2, table ZUS-04, http://www.destatis.de or
- Data refer to passed university examinations. Bachelors? degree and masters? degree in human
medicine are excluded.
- Graduates in pharmacy and dentistry are excluded.
Source of data: Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.).
Coverage: All the data refers to graduates from Greek universities. Data for 1986-1992 are not
available as figures cannot be retrieved from publications. Data for 2000 and 2002-2004 are not
available, as the number of graduates from some medical schools is missing.
Source of data: Central Statistical Office (KSH), Statistical Yearbook. http://www.ksh.hu.
Coverage: From 1990 onwards, the data are derived from the ?Report on the number of physicians,
dentists, pharmacists and specialised clinical psychologists with granted diploma? collection.
Source of data:
- As of 1996: Statistics Iceland, Register of graduations.
- 1980-1995: Directorate of Health.
Reference period: As of 1996, the calendar year.
- Students who graduated in medicine (who have completed basic medical education) from the medical
faculty of the University of Iceland (the only one in Iceland) in a given year.
- Data exclude: graduates in pharmacy, dentistry/stomatology, public health and epidemiology, and
individuals who have completed post-graduate studies or training in medicine.
Source of data: Higher Education Authority.
Reference period: Calendar year.
Coverage: Universities, Institutes of Technology and Designated Institutions.

Source of data: Central Bureau of Statistics ? The data are based on personal records of degree
recipients received from all Universities in Israel which include information on subjects of study
and degree received. Medical graduates include recipients of second degrees in Medicine (MD). Data
do not include programs intended exclusively for foreign students.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant
Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the
Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of
international law.
Source of data: Ministry of Education; ?Survey on Graduates and Exams? carried out yearly by the
Ministry by collecting data from Italian Universities (http://www.miur.it).
Source of data: Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) since 2008.
Coverage: The annual surveys collected and compiled by the Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) are as
- on higher education institutions and colleges.
Break in series: 2008: Change in data source.
Note: Source of data prior to 2008 not clear.
Source of data: Statistics Lithuania, data of entire annual survey of education institutions. Report
?Health Statistics of Lithuania?, available from http://sic.hi.lt/html/en/hsl.htm.
The number of graduates fluctuates starting from 1992 due to political and economical changes in the
country, changes in the status of medical institutes (to universities) and medical schools (to
colleges) and changes in studying programmes. Therefore, every year different number of groups of
students of medical specialties is starting the education (and after some years graduating).
Data not available. The University of Luxembourg does not offer full training in medicine.
Source of data: Medical Council Register/University of Malta.
Note: there is no separated data for medical and dentists graduates
Source of data: Statistics of Netherlands, Statistics of university education.
Coverage: The number of medical graduates in universities is based on the ?integrated higher
education project?. In this project, Statistics Netherlands is working together with the
Information Management Group (IBG), Higher Professional Education Council (HBO-Raad), Association of
Dutch Universities (VSNU) and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (OCW).
North Macedonia
Source of data: State Statistical Office (SSO), Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia.
Reference period: 31st December.
Source of data: Statistics Norway.
- Statistics Norway collects student data from the administrative systems of the various tertiary
institutions. The administrative systems in tertiary institutions create data files in the format
specified by Statistics Norway. Information on completed doctoral degrees is collected from NIFU
- Tertiary graduation statistics include all individuals who have completed a degree of 2 years or
longer from an educational institution classified by the Standard Industrial Classification as a
tertiary institution. Registration of completed educational activities occurs during the period 1
October in year x, 30 September in year x+1.
- See http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/02/40/eksuvh_en/ and then 'About the statistics'.
Coverage: Complete coverage as statistics are based on enumeration of graduates in tertiary
education. Sampling errors and non-response errors do not exist.
Break in time series: Individually based data on completed education have been published annually
since they were first collected in 1973/74 (academic year). Most variables are comparable, but some
have changed. The revised Norwegian Standard Classification of Education
(http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/90/nos_c751_en/) recoded education courses to enable
comparison of newer and older data (also including a recoding to ISCED-97). While education courses
are reasonably comparable over time, other variables are not (e.g. coding of institution types).
Source of data:
- Until 1990: publication of the Ministry of National Education, ?Higher education, basic data?.
- From 1990: Central Statistical Office, reports S-10.
Break in time series: 1990 due to change of data source.
Source of data:
- Since 2011: Directorate General of Statistics of Education and Science, Ministry of Education and
- Between 2006 and 2010: Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education.
- Up to 2005: Ministry of Education.
- Data represent the total number of graduates.
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health
Management, Annual statistical report N17 ?On staff and cadres of health institutions?.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign graduates are not included.
Source of data: Ministry of Education for the period 1990-1997 data on graduates and National
Institute of Statistics since 1998 till now, Activity of Education Units (Statistical data on
tertiary education) ? annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: academic year.
Break in the series: 1996 (Since 1996 including private sector).
Source of data: National Statistical Office. http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/ .
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Data for Kosovo-Metohija province are not included in the coverage of data for the
Republic of Serbia.
Source of data: National Health Information Center (submitted data are from the Institute of
Information and Prognosis of Education, http://www.uips.sk).
Source of data: The National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, Health
Statistics Yearbook.
Reference period: 31st December.
Source of data: National Statistics Institute (INE). University Education Statistic.
Source of data: National Board of Health and Welfare. National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; hospital statistics, statistics of
high-level schools, human medicine degree; yearly census.
Source of data: General Directorate for Health Services, Ministry of Health and ESPC Higher
Education Statistics.
Reference period: End of the academic year.
Coverage: Data refer to medical school graduates having graduated after a 6-year basic medical
education at university.
- In 2013, data have been updated since 1994 as ESPC updates the graduates data, retrospectively,
every year.
Source of data: Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan.
Source: State Statistic Department
Deviation from the definition: Graduates from university level medical schools/faculties of 3-4th
levels of accreditation in medicine and pediatrics. Pharmacists, dentists and epidemiologists are
not included.
United Kingdom
Source of data: 1992-2006 Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), ?UK Graduate Output
1991/92 to 2012/13?.
Reference period: Period covers 1st August to 31st July.
Coverage: Qualifications gained by incoming, visiting and exchange students from overseas are
The decline in 1998 is due to the reform of medical education, introducing an extension of studying
medicine for 1 year.