• % of regular daily smokers in the population, age 15+, females (Line chart)
  • % of regular daily smokers in the population, age 15+, females (Bar chart)
  • % of regular daily smokers in the population, age 15+, females (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European Health for All database

Indicators: 611
Updated: 15 June 2018
Downloads: 16248

The following abbreviations are used in the indicator titles:
•    SDR: age-standardized death rates (see HFA-DB user manual/Technical notes, page 13, for details)
•    FTE: full-time equivalent
•    PP: physical persons
•    PPP$: purchasing power parities expressed in US $, an internationally comparable scale reflecting the relative domestic purchasing powers of currencies.

Indicator notes
% of regular daily smokers in the population, age 15+, females
Indicator code: E171010.F This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator \"% of regular daily smokers in the population, age 15+\".

This indicator is measured using the standard questionnaire during a health interview of a representative sample of the population aged 15 years and above. Many countries are carrying out such health interview surveys on a more or less regular basis. However, most of the data are collected from multiple sources by the Tobacco or Health unit at WHO/EURO.

When only male and female values are available, the total is calculated as the average of the male+female value.

More detailed sources may be given on the Tobacco Control Database: http://data.euro.who.int/tobacco/_
Country notes
Albania
Source:
National data (years 2010 and later): Institute of Public Health.
ADT:
- 2000: Assessment and evaluation of smoking prevalence among adult population [+15 years] and
population subgroups in Albania and other indicators related to tobacco use. Age group 15-100 years.
Data refer to current and not daily tobacco smoking.
- 2002: Reproductive Health Survey. Age groups: 15-49 years for males and 15-44 for females. Data
refer to current and not daily tobacco smoking.
- 2007: Albanian Adult Tobacco Survey. Age group 18-100 years. Data refer to current and not daily
tobacco smoking.
- 2009: Demographic Health Survey. Age group 15-49 years. Data refer to current and not daily
tobacco smoking.
Andorra
2002 data includes regular and occasional smokers, age group 16+ years.
Armenia
Source of data: Health Systems Performance Assessment, National report 2009, 2012 http://moh.am.
The Assessment covers population 15+ and carried out with periodicity of three years, was conducted
in 2007, 2009 and 2012. New research is planed in year 2015.
Data for 1998 covers population 20+, for data for 2001 covers population 18+, both , collected by
department ?Tobacco and Health, Ministry of Health of Armenia
Austria
Data for 1986, 1991, 1997 is for 16+ agegroup. Data for 2006 is for 15+ agegroup.
Belarus
Source from 2002: Centre of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Public Health.
Data collected using standard instruments and methods, i.e. relatively comparable internationally.
Smoking prevalence estimate for 2002 is not comparable with the data prior to 2002, which are from
the general household surveys carried out by the Ministry of Statistics, using more rough methods
and presumably covering different age groups.
Belgium
Data from 1989 onwards. Source: Research and Information Center of the Consumer Organizations. 1997,
2001, 2004, 2008 and 2013 source: National Health Interview Survey
(http://www.wiv-isp.be/epidemio/epien/index4.htm, http://www.wiv-isp.be/epidemio/hisia/index.htm).
Bosnia and Herzegovina
2002 data: agegroup 18-65 years
Bulgaria
2001 data: 16+ age group.
Croatia
Data for 1995 and 2000 includes ages 18-65 years Data for 2003 is for 18+ age group.
Data for 2014 ? Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS), conducted in 2014/2015. Population 15+.
Cyprus
Source of data: For 2003: Health Interview Survey conducted by the Statistical Service of Cyprus
(CYSTAT) in 2003. For 2008: European Health Interview Survey conducted by CYSTAT in 2008.
Czechia
Source: Data for years 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of
CR (IHIS CR), HIS CR. Data for 2003 onwards: National Institute of Public Health (www.szu.cz),
Developments in the prevalence of smoking among adults in the Czech Republic - opinions and
attitudes of the population to the issue of smoking. Nationally representative sample surveys,
population aged 15 years and older covered. Data refer to daily smokers.
Denmark
Source: www.sst.dk (?Danskernes rygervaner?)
Estonia
Biannual regular health behaviour survey of adult (16-64) population -Health Behaviour among
Estonian Adult Population. (Postal survey.) Source: Estonian Centre for Health Education and
Promotion until 2002. Since 2004 National Institute for Health Development.
Further information: The original survey publications are:
- Tekkel, M., Veideman, T. (2011). Health Behavior among Estonian Adult Population, 2010. National
Institute for Health Development. Available at
http://www.tai.ee/terviseandmed/uuringud/download/144.
- Tekkel, M., Veideman, T. (2013). Health Behavior among Estonian Adult Population, 2012. National
Institute for Health Development. Available at
http://www.tai.ee/en/health-data/research-reports/download/222
- Tekkel, M., Veideman, T. (2015). Health Behavior among Estonian Adult Population, 2014. National
Institute for Health Development. Available at
http://www.tai.ee/en/health-data/research-reports/download/319
- Data are also published in the Health Statistics and Health Research Database available at
http://pxweb.tai.ee/esf/pxweb2008/dialog/statfile1.asp.
Finland
Source: Health and Health Behaviour among Adult Population - survey. THL (National Institute for
Health and Welfare). 15-64 year old population.
France
Source of data: Barometre sante institut national de prevention et d?education pour la sante ( INPES
http://www.inpes.sante.fr/default.asp)
Note: Age limits for 2005 and 2010 are 15-75
Georgia
Data for 1998 from ADT and includes ages 15+ years
Data for 2001 from ADT and includes ages 18+ years
Germany
Source: Federal Statistical Office, Microcensus survey (Questions on health - smoking habits).
http://www.destatis.de or http://www.gbe-bund.de
Coverage: The Microcensus is a household survey covering 1% of the German population (15 years and
older). The survey contains health-related topics (among others about smoking habits) which are
repeated not annually, but in specific intervals (1992, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2009 and 2013).
The questions on smoking habits are self-assessed: Do you currently smoke? Yes regularly / Yes
occasionally / No / No answer. Answers to the questions on smoking habits are optional and
self-reported. In principle, every person of the household should answer for himself, but proxy
interviews are also permissible in the Microcensus. That means that one household member may supply
information about other household members.
Hungary
Source in 2000 and 2003: National Health Interview Survey (OLEF 2000 and OLEF 2003) by Hungarian
National Center of Epidemiology. Survey based on representative samples and included the population
aged 18 years and over.
Source in 2009: European Health Interview Survey (ELEF 2009) by Hungarian Central Statistical
Office. Survey based on representative samples and included the population aged 15 years and over.

Source in 2014: European Health Interview Survey 2014 ? Eurostat.
Iceland
Based on annual surveys.
Source of data: Prior to 2011: Statistics Iceland. Source as of 2011: Directorate of Health.
Coverage: Prior to 2011: Ages 15-79, daily smokers. 2011-2013: Ages 15-89, daily smokers. As of
2013: Ages 18+, daily smokers.
Ireland
From 1998, source is Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLAN), and data refers to adults
aged 18 and older. It should be noted that young men (age 18-29 years) were under-represented in
2002. As this group have the highest proportion of smokers, this may have led to an under-estimation
of the percentage of male smokers in 2002, and for this reason the apparent increase in smoking
rates between 2002 and 2007 should be treated with caution. * A different methodology was employed
in 2007. While 1998 and 2002 were postal surveys using samples drawn from the electoral register,
2007 involved face-to-face interviews and the sampling frame was the GeoDirectory.
* The exact same question was asked in 1998 and 2002. While a slightly different question was asked
in 2007, it should not have made a difference. The question wording is:
- for 1998 and 2002: Do you smoke cigarettes now? No; Yes, regularly; Yes, occasionally (usually
less than 1 per day).
- for 2007: Do you now smoke: every day, some days, or not at all?

From 2015 , source is the Annual Healthy Ireland survey, commissioned by the Department of Health as
part of the Healthy Ireland initiative. Data refers to those aged 15 and over living in private
households.
The question asked was the standard EHIS question regarding smoking:
Do you smoke tobacco products?
% of regular smokers is estimated by summing those who smoke daily or occasionally.
Israel
Until 2001 data is for Jewish population. Since 2002, data is for all population. Until 1993 data is
for those aged 20 and above. For 1994-2002, 2005, 2006 data is for those aged 18 and above. For
2003-2004 and 2007-2013 data is for those aged 21 and above.
Source: Department for Health Education and Promotion and the ICDC, Ministry of Health.
Italy
Source: ISTAT. Multi-purpose survey on Aspects of Daily Living. Data refer to all smokers aged 15+
because this survey can not distinguish daily smokers from occasional smokers.
Kazakhstan
Data for 2001 are for daily smokers age 15+ years. Source is Results of the Second National
Research, Almaty, 2002.
Data for 2004: agegroup 12+ years. Source: Third National Survey on Lifestyle and Life Conditions of
Population.
Kyrgyzstan
Data for 1997 for ages 18-65 years.
Data for 1999 and 2001 from ADT unit and for 18+ agegroup
Latvia
Data for 1998 from ADT unit for age group 16-64. Data for 1999 from ADT unit, no age group
specified.
Data for 2002, 2004 from ADT unit for age group 15-64
Data source for 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012: FINBALT Survey \Health Behaviour among Latvian Adult
Population\". Data cover age group 15-64.
Break in time series: the methodology of the FINBALT survey was changed in 2010. Mailed
questionnaires were used for data collection during the previous surveys. In 2010 and 2012 data was
obtained through face-to-face interviews. Therefore the response rate of those people
Lithuania
Source for 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2006, 2008; 2010; 2012: the postal survey Health
Behaviour Among Lithuanian Adult Population (Kaunas Medical University), data for daily smokers aged
20-64. Data for 2005: Health Interview Survey, daily smokers, age 15+, Central Statistical Office.
Data for 2014: European Health Interview Survey, daily smokers, age 15+, Central Statistical Office
Luxembourg
Fondation luxembourgeoise contre le cancer. Surveys realized by l'ILRES (Institut luxembourgeois
d'etudes et de recherches sociales) in 1987, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2000 and yearly since 2002.
Malta
Data in 1995 for age group 15-95 years. Data in 2002 for age group 16+ (HIS).
Source: Department of Health Information. Data for 2008 from Department of Health Information and
Research (EHIS 2008).
Montenegro
Source: National HIS conducted 2008 and 2012; age of the study population is 19+.
Netherlands
Source of data: Health Interview Survey of Statistics Netherlands. Up to 2000, the percentage refers
to daily and occasional smokers of 15 years and older.
Note: From 2001 onwards the percentage refers to daily smokers, the same as data for the OECD, which
is more or less 6 to 7 percentage points lower.
Norway
Source: Norwegian Directorate of Health, Department for Tobacco Control /Statistics Norway.
Coverage: Population aged 16-74 years old.
Methodology:
- Interview survey.
- Until 2008 three-year moving average was used.
Poland
Age: 15+ years.
Source of data: the Nationwide Survey on Smoking Behaviours and Attitudes. Annual national
randomized surveys of adults.
Portugal
The indicators previously submitted for 2006 relate to smokers (daily and occasional). The update
refers only to regular smokers (daily), according to the concept.
Source of data: Ministry of Health - National Health Institute (INSA) and National Institute for
Statistics (INE), National Health Survey. Coverage: National
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Data for 2005: Results of the survey on the health status of the population in the
Republic of Moldova.
Data for 2012 - MICS study in Moldova in 2012 (covers the age group 15+ years).
Data for 2013 - STEPS study in Moldova in 2013 (covers the age group 18+ years).
Romania
GATS Romania 2011
(http://www.ms.ro/documente/Global%20Adult%20Tobacco%20Survey%20Romania%202011_9435_7787.pdf)
Russian Federation
Data for 1998 from ADT unit and for age group 20+ years.
Data for 2001 from ADT unit and for age group 18+ years.
Serbia
Source of data: Institute of Public Health of Serbia, National health (interview) survey, 2000,
2006, and 2013. Representative sample.
Slovakia
Source of data: Data for 2004: Age group 18+ years. Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Data
for 2009 : European Health Interview Survey 2009 (carried out every 5 years), Source: Statistical
Office of the Slovak Republic.
Slovenia
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia (NIJZ)
Data for 2001 from ADT unit and for agegroup 15-64 years. Otherwise data includes agegroup 18+
Data for 2007 from European Health Interview Survey (EHIS), age group 15+. More info:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/microdata/european-health-interview-survey
Data for 2012 from Survey on the Use of Tobacco, Alcohol and Other Drugs 2011-2012, age group 15-64
years.
Data for 2014 from European Health interview Survey (EHIS), age group 15+. More info:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/microdata/european-health-interview-survey
Spain
Source: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality ? and National Statistics Institute (INE)
National Health Survey for all years except 2009. ( 1993,1995,1997,2001,2003,2006,2011)
http://www.msssi.gob.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/encuestaNacional/home.htm
European Health Survey in Spain (2009, 2014) www.ine.es

Data relate to population aged 16 years and over. Figures computed excluding missing values.
For year 2009, National Statistics Institute and Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality.
European Health Interview Survey in Spain .
http://www.mspsi.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/EncuestaEuropea/home.htm
Coverage: From 1993 to 2009, data relate to population aged 16 years and over.
Estimation method: Survey. Weighted data. Figures computed excluding missing values.
Sweden
Source: Statistics Sweden
Living Conditions Surveys (ULF/SILC).
Number of daily smokers, 16-84 years old.

Statistics Sweden has investigated living conditions in Sweden (ULF) since 1975 in order to describe
Swedish welfare. An adjustment of ULF was made to the EU's system 2006-2008, where ULF was merged
with EU's Living Conditions Survey SILC (Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) to the
ULF/SILC.

Note: Data before 2002 are for daily smoker?s age 16-74 years.
Switzerland
Data for 1997 from ADT unit for age group 15-74 years. Data for 2002 for age group 14-65 years.
Turkey
Source of data and Method: Data for 2003 is from National Household Survey 2003, Turkey National
Burden of Disease and Cost Effectiveness Study; (male, female and total figures reflect daily
smokers for 18+), Ministry of Health of Turkey.
Data for 2006 is from Family Structure Research 2006; (male, female and total figures reflect
smokers for 18+, who were asked if they were smoking or not),TURKSTAT
Data for 2008 is from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2008 (male, female and total figures reflect
daily smokers for 15+), TURKSTAT
Data for 2010 is from Health Interview Survey 2010 (male, female and total figures reflect daily
smokers for 15+), TURKSTAT
Data for 2012 is from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2012 (male, female and total figures reflect
daily smokers for 15+), TURKSTAT
Ukraine
Data for 1995 from ADT unit for agegroup 20-59 years.
Data for 2000 from ADT unit for agegroup 15+ years.
United Kingdom
Source of Data: ONS General Lifestyle Survey, from 2012 Opinions and Lifestyle Survey 2012. 2014
figures taken from the ONS ?Adult smoking habits in Great Britain: 2014?.
Coverage: Data is for Great Britain only i.e. excludes Northern Ireland.

Deviation from the Definition: Data on regular daily smoking is only available in adults age 16+.
In children age 15 and below, regular smoking is defined as smoking at least once a week, therefore,
we are unable to produce a figure for smoking in adults aged 15+.

Break in Time Series: From 2000 figures are based on a weighted sample (before 2000 figures are
based on an unweighted sample, and are not directly comparable with figures from 2000).
Uzbekistan
Data for 2002: male agegroup=15-59 years; female agegroup=15-49 years.