• Percentage of invasive isolates of Acinetobacter spp. with combined resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and carbapenems (Map)
Data set notes
Antimicrobial resistance

Indicators: 23
Updated: 13 December 2017
Downloads: 391

This data set describes antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data from the WHO European Region gathered through the Central Asian and Eastern European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (CAESAR) network and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). The data set aims to create awareness about antibiotic resistance situation and advocate AMR control policies in participating countries. Data is available for 19 countries and Kosovo (in accordance with United Nations Security Council resolution 1244 (1999)) within CAESAR, and 30 countries within EARS-Net; with remaining WHO European Region Member States marked as “Did not participate in survey” in the dataset.

CAESAR-specific questions not applicable to EARS-Net countries are also marked as “Did not participate in survey”.

Those countries that did not respond to a specific question are marked as "No response" for that question only. Data has been collected by the Control of Antimicrobial Resistance Programme at the Division of Health Emergencies and Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe and the ECDC EARS-Net. Current data is available for multiple years for CAESAR and EARS-Net, and future data collection is foreseen.

CAESAR: Data was collected from the national AMR focal points. Data was published in the Central Asian and Eastern European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance annual reports available online in English and Russian http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/antimicrobial-resistance/surveillance/central-asian-and-eastern-european-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-caesar

EARS-Net: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Data from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). ECDC Surveillance Atlas of Infectious Diseases
https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/surveillance-atlas-infectious-diseases

Geographical coverage
CAESAR countries and areas: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Montenegro, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Serbia, Switzerland, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kosovo (in accordance with United Nations Security Council resolution 1244(1999)).

EARS-Net countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

Data quality
Level B data provides an indication of the resistance patterns present in clinical settings in the country, but the proportion of resistance should be interpreted with care. Improvements are needed to attain a more valid assessment of the magnitude and trends of AMR in the country. Levels of evidence are only provided for CAESAR countries and areas.
Indicator notes
CAESAR and EARS-Net collect susceptibility test results of invasive isolates from national AMR surveillance networks. Network laboratories are asked to report antimicrobial susceptibility results for the first isolate from blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) per patient per year.

Antimicrobial susceptibility results are presented as the percentage of isolates of a specific microorganism that are resistant (R) to a specific antimicrobial agent or class. The R interpretations are based on the clinical breakpoint criteria used by local laboratories.

For 2015 data: Multidrug resistance is defined as resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and carbapenems.
Fluoroquinolone resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
Aminoglycoside resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: gentamicin and tobramycin.
Carbapenem resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: imipenem and meropenem.

For 2016 data:
250 Multidrug resistance is defined as resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and carbapenems.
251 Fluoroquinolone resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.
252 Aminoglycoside resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: gentamicin and tobramycin.
253 Carbapenem resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: imipenem and meropenem. Isolates with missing data on one or more of the groups are excluded.

Since data vary with regard to the representativeness of the underlying population, the CAESAR network assigns levels of evidence to guide the reader in interpreting the presented data, whereas EARS-Net does not make this distinction. CAESAR countries and areas with level B data are listed in the map footnote, indicating that the percentage of resistance should be interpreted with caution. Improvements are needed to attain more valid assessment of the magnitude of antimicrobial resistance in the country. Level A data, presented without a footnote, provide an adequate assessment of the magnitude of antimicrobial resistance in the country. Further information on the levels of evidence, see CAESAR annual report.
Country notes
Albania
Source: CAESAR database.
Armenia
Source: CAESAR database.
Austria
Source: EARS-Net database.
Azerbaijan
Source: CAESAR database.
Belarus
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data.
Belgium
Source: EARS-Net database.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data. (2015)
Source: CAESAR database. (2016)
Bulgaria
Source: EARS-Net database.
Croatia
Source: EARS-Net database.
Cyprus
Source: EARS-Net database.
Czechia
Source: EARS-Net database.
Denmark
Source: EARS-Net database.
Estonia
Source: EARS-Net database.
Finland
Source: EARS-Net database.
France
Source: EARS-Net database.
Georgia
Source: CAESAR database. (2015)
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data. (2016)
Germany
Source: EARS-Net database.
Greece
Source: EARS-Net database.
Hungary
Source: EARS-Net database.
Iceland
Source: EARS-Net database. Indicator is not calculated for a given geographical resolution and time period. (2015)
Source: EARS-Net database. (2016)
Ireland
Source: EARS-Net database.
Italy
Source: EARS-Net database.
Kazakhstan
Source: CAESAR database.
Kyrgyzstan
Source: CAESAR database.
Latvia
Source: EARS-Net database.
Lithuania
Source: EARS-Net database.
Luxembourg
Source: EARS-Net database. Indicator is not calculated for a given geographical resolution and time period. (2015)
Source: EARS-Net database. (2016)
Malta
Source: EARS-Net database.
Montenegro
Source: CAESAR database. (2015)
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data. (2016)
Netherlands
Source: EARS-Net database.
North Macedonia
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data.
Norway
Source: EARS-Net database.
Poland
Source: EARS-Net database.
Portugal
Source: EARS-Net database.
Republic of Moldova
Source: CAESAR database.
Romania
Source: EARS-Net database.
Russian Federation
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data.
Serbia
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data. (2015)
Source: CAESAR database. (2016)
Slovakia
Source: EARS-Net database.
Slovenia
Source: EARS-Net database.
Spain
Source: EARS-Net database.
Sweden
Source: EARS-Net database.
Switzerland
Source: CAESAR database.
Tajikistan
Source: CAESAR database.
Turkey
Source: CAESAR database.
Turkmenistan
Source: CAESAR database.
Ukraine
Source: CAESAR database.
United Kingdom
Source: EARS-Net database.
Uzbekistan
Source: CAESAR database.
Kosovo*
Source: CAESAR database. Level B data.