• Medical group of specialists, per 100 000 population (Line chart)
  • Medical group of specialists, per 100 000 (Boxplot chart)
Data set notes
European database on human and technical resources for health

Indicators: 250
Updated: 23 September 2016
Downloads: 3839

HlthRes-DB provides a wide range of statistics on human and technical resources for health and offers data on non-monetary health care resources collected through the joint work of the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and WHO/Europe. It contains nearly 200 indicators on human and technical resources for health.

Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.

Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.

HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.

Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.

More information: http://www.euro.who.int/en/data-and-evidence/databases/european-database-on-human-and-technical-resources-for-health-hlthres-db
Indicator notes
Medical group of specialists, per 100 000 population
Indicator code: ph_spec.spec.med.rate This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator "Medical group of specialists, total number".

Medical specialists are doctors who specialise in the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of physical disorders and diseases.
Inclusion
- Internal medicine
- Cardiology
- Endocrinology
- Gastroenterology
- Pulmonology
- Respiratory medicine
- Oncology
- Gynaecologic oncology
- Immunology
- Rheumatology
- Neurology
- Oto-rhino-laringology
- Radiology
- Infectious diseases
- Microbiology-bacteriology
- Haematology
- Dermatology
- Pathology
- Occupational medicine
- Medical interns or residents training in these specialties
Exclusion
- Surgery
- Gynecology and obstetrics
- Paediatrics
- Psychiatry
- General practice
Note: The number should be at the end of the calendar year.
Country notes
Armenia
Source of data: Republican Research and Information Health Centre and the National Statistic Service of the Republic of Armenia, Report form of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia ? 17 “Health employment”, http://healthinfo.am/Statistical%20Report.htm, Statistical book, Armenia, English version (zip) 2009.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: Data on interns and residents are included in the category “Other specialties not elsewhere classified”.
Austria
Source of data: Osterreichische Arztekammer - Vollerhebung / Austrian Medical Chamber - total of members.
Reference period: December/January (reference day varies).
Coverage:
- No data available for: Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Oncology.
- Excludes interns ("Turnusarzte").
Deviation from definition:
- The Austrian Medical Chamber double counts physicians who have graduated as general practitioners as well as specialists. This concerns about 200 to 280 cases in the most recent years. Therefore the sum of physicians by categories is greater than the total number of practising physicians.
- Medical interns/residents cannot be separated by specialisation or progress of training.
Azerbaijan
Source of data: The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Reference period: data as of December 31.
Belarus
Source of data: National Statistics Committee of Belarus http://belstat.gov.by/; National Archives of the Republic of Belarus http://narb.by/
Coverage: Data provided on medical practitioners. Interns are included in the category "Medical doctors not further classified”.
Reporting period: 31 December.
Break in time series: 2010. There was no formal separation of the profiles of medical specialties until 2009, so over the years some of the categories of medical specialists could belong to different categories. Thus reliable data on the number of specialties assigned to a specific group of doctors cannot be provided by the National Statistical Committ. In 2010, the Ministry of Health approved the profiles of medical specialties and related positions of medical specialists.
Deviation from the definition: Data on foreign doctors are not included because this information is not available.
Belgium
Source of data: Institut National d'Assurance Maladie Invalidite. “Rapport Annuel”.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data.
- Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals working abroad. Includes professionals of foreign origin.
- Number of physicians with at least 1 patient contact.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source: Public Health Institute of FB&H - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in FB&H Public Health Institute of Republica Srpska - Annual report health personnel with university degree by specialization and sex in Republica Srpska
Bulgaria
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey
Reference period: 31st December
Coverage: All medical specialists (head counts) who worked on a basic labour contract in outpatient and inpatient establishments, as well as those who practice in other heath establishments - centres for emergency medical care, centres for transfusion haematology, homes for medical and social care for children, Hygiene-epidemiological inspections and others. Residents are included (data refer to the speciality that has been practised).
Estimation method: Data on medical specialists refer to the speciality that is practiced.
Break in time series: For the 2007 reference year the survey methodology was changed in order to improve the data comparability (because of a new Ordinance on an acquisition of specialty in the health care system issued in the end of 2006 by the Ministry of Health and the Eurostat’s questionnaire on non-expenditure health care data methodology requirements the list of medical specialties included in the exhaustive survey carried out by the BNSI is changed).
Inclusion: 2002 – 2003 data: Internal medicine, Communicable diseases, Nutrition and dietetics, Hygiene of children and youth, Cardiology, Endocrinology and metabolic diseases, Gastroenterology, Pneumology, Rheumatology, Allergology, Neurology, Oto-rhino-laringology, radiation treatment, Microbiology, Parasitology, Haematology, Transfusion haematology, Dermato-venerology, Pathological anatomy, Forensic medicine, Imaging diagnostic, Occupational medicine, Clinical laboratory, Epidemiology of the communicable diseases, Occupational diseases. All data are revised according to the requirements and all physicians with occupational medicine specialty are included.

2004 – 2006 data: Internal medicine, Communicable diseases, Nutrition and dietetics, Geriatric medicine, Hygiene of children and youth, Cardiology, Endocrinology and metabolic diseases, Gastroenterology, Pneumology, Rheumatology, Clinical allergology, Clinical immunology, Neurology, Oto-rhino-laringology, radiation treatment, Microbiology, Virology, Medical parasitology, Clinical toxicology, Toxicology, Clinical haematology, Transfusion haematology, Dermato-venerology, General and clinical pathology, Pathophysiology, Forensic medicine, Imaging diagnostic, Occupational medicine, Clinical laboratory, Epidemiology of the communicable diseases, Occupational diseases. All data are revised according to the requirements and all physicians with occupational medicine specialty are included.

2007 – 2013 data: Internal medicine, Communicable diseases, Nutrition and dietetics, Geriatric medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology and metabolic diseases, Gastroenterology, Pneumology, Medical oncology, Rheumatology, Clinical allergology, Clinical immunology, Neurology, Oto-rhino-laringology, radiation treatment, nuclear medicine, Microbiology, Virology, Medical parasitology, Clinical toxicology, Toxicology, Clinical haematology, Transfusion haematology, Dermato-venerology, General and clinical pathology, Pathophysiology, Forensic medicine, Imaging diagnostic, Occupational medicine, Clinical laboratory, Epidemiology of the communicable diseases, . All data are revised according to the requirements and all physicians with occupational medicine specialty are included.
Croatia
Source of data: Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Health Manpower Register
Deviation from the definition: Included are urology, orthopaedics, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, internal medicine, pneumophthisiology, radiology, radiotherapy and oncology, nuclear medicine, transfusion medicine, medical microbiology with parasitology, infectology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, dermatovenerology, neurology, clinical cytology, clinical pharmacology with toxicology, anatomy pathology up to 2008.
Break in time series: 2009. From 2009. included are: internal medicine, pneumophthisiology, infectology, neurology, dermatovenerology, , otorhinolaryngology, transfusional medicine, radiology, radiotherapy and oncology, nuclear medicine, physical medicine and rehabilitation, medical microbiolog.with parasitology, anatom. pathology, clinical citology, forensic medicine and occupational medicine.
Cyprus
Source of data: Statistical Service of Cyprus, Health and Hospital Statistics. For the years 1985, 1987, 1995 and 2000 figures were obtained from the Census of Doctors, Dentists and Clinics.
Reference period: 31st December.
Czechia
Source of data: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic; Registry of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Diabetology and endocrinology (since 2010 endocrinology is not a separate branch), Geriatrics, Infectious medicine, Internal medicine, Rehabilitation and physical medicine, Sexology, Sports medicine, Hyperbaric medicine and oxygenotherapy, Palliative medicine and pain management, Cardiology, Paediatric cardiology, Angiology, Gastroenterology, Paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology, Paediatric pneumology, Pneumology, Clinical oncology, Paediatric oncology and haemato-oncology, Allergology and medical immunology, Rheumatology, Paediatric rheumatology, Neurology, Paediatric neurology, Audiology and phoniatry, Otorhinolaryngology, Paediatric otorhinolaryngology, Interventional radiology, Neuroradiology, Nuclear medicine, Radiation oncology, Radiology and imaging methods, Paediatric radiology, Medical microbiology, Haematology and transfusion, Corrective dermatology, Dermatovenerology, Paediatric dermatovenerology, Forensic medicine, Pathological anatomy, Occupational medicine.
Break in time series: A new legislation on medical professions came into effect in 2004.
Denmark
Source of data: Statens Serum Institut, Labour Register for Health Personnel.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- The data contain specialists working in hospitals, nursing and residential care facilities or in providers of ambulatory health care.
- Data refer to "practising" specialists.
- If the physician has more than one specialty, the one obtained at the latest date is counted.
Estonia
Source of data:
- Annual reports, National Institute for Health Development, Department of Health Statistics.
Reference period:
- 1980-2012: 31st of December.
- Since 2013: November.
Coverage:
- The category “Medical group of specialties” presents practising physicians.
- Medical staff working in research or other areas is not included. The military area has been included since 2010.
- Resident physicians are not included the category “Medical group of specialties”. Data are not available by specialties.
Break in time series: 2005 and 2013.
- Until 2004, the number of practising physicians was based on their last or main educational qualification.
- From 2005, the head count distribution is made according to their main occupational activity.
- The data collection methodology was changed in 2013. Aggregated data collection was replaced with data collection on a personal basis. From 2013, the predominant (main) area of practice is based on an occupation with the highest workload.
Finland
1) Until 2009
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Register of the Finnish Medical Association which is updated by a yearly survey covering all physicians licensed to practice in Finland who are not retired.
Reference period: Mid-March.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to 'professionally active' physicians. The specialty is according to the last specialty acquired.
Coverage: Includes physicians specialised in cardiology, clinical haematology, clinical microbiology, clinical neurophysiology, clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, dermatology and allergology, endocrinology, forensic medicine, gastroenterology, geriatrics, infectious diseases, internal medicine, neurology, occupational health, oncology, otolaryngology, pathology, phoniatrics, physical and rehabilitation medicine, radiology, respiratory medicine and allergology and rheumatology not working in primary care. 2) 2010
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Data from a survey: "Physicians’ Working Conditions and Health” 2010 survey.
Reference period: End of year.
Coverage: Survey for 7,000 physicians, response rate 54%. The data were weighted according to sex, age group and specialisation to represent all physicians under 70 years old who are licensed to practice and living in Finland. These data concern professionally active physicians under 65 years old. Specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. Unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and physicians currently specialising are classified as “Medical doctors not further defined”.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians. 3) 2011
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Data from a survey: "Finnish Medical Association Labour Market Survey 2012”.
Reference period: March 2012.
Coverage: The survey population consisted of physicians aged under 70, resident in Finland and having a registered e-mail address in the Finnish Medical Association’s register. The survey was carried out electronically in March 2012. An e-mail invitation was sent to 18701 physicians. A total of 5660 physicians responded. The data were weighted according to sex, age group and specialisation to represent all physicians under 70 years old who are licensed to practice and living in Finland. These data concern professionally active physicians under 65 years old. All physicians working in primary care are classified as GP’s regardless of their specialty. The remaining specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. The unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and the physicians currently specialising are classified as “Medical doctors not further defined”.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians. 4) 2012
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. Data from a survey: "Finnish Medical Association Labour Market Survey 2013”.
Reference period: March 2013.
Coverage: The survey population consisted of physicians aged under 70 years old, resident in Finland and having a registered e-mail address in the Finnish Medical Association’s register. The survey was carried out electronically in March 2013.An e-mail invitation was sent to 19 212 physicians. A total of 5 076 physicians responded. The data were weighted according to sex, age group and specialisation to represent all physicians under 70 years old who are licensed to practice and living in Finland. These data concern professionally active physicians under 65 years old. All physicians working in primary care are classified as GP’s regardless of their specialty. The remaining specialist physicians are classified according to their last specialty. The unspecialised physicians not working in primary care and the physicians currently specialising are classified as “Medical doctors not further defined”.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians.
France
Source of data: Ministere du Travail, de l’Emploi et de la Sante - Direction de la Recherche, des Etudes, de l'Evaluation et des Statistiques (DREES), Sous-Direction de l'Observation de la Sante et de l'Assurance maladie, Bureau des Professions de sante.
- Until 2010 (01/01/2011): Repertoire ADELI (DREES).
- From 2011 (01/01/2012): RPPS (Repertoire partage des professionnels de sante), ASIP-SANTE RPPS.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data refer to active physicians.
- Data refer to metropolitan France and D.O.M. (overseas departments).
- Interns and residents are not included.
Deviation from the definition:
- The data refer to active physicians.
- Interns and residents are not included.
Break in time series:
- In 2009 (01/01/2010), there is a break in the series for physicians because of a change in the statistical methodology.
- In 2011 (01/01/2012), there is a second break in the series, because of the change in the data source (RPPS since 2011). Also, as of 2011, “Geriatrics” has been integrated into “Internal medicine” and the medical group of specialists. In the former source (Repertoire ADELI), Geriatrics was not considered as a full specialty.
Note: The new source (RPPS) makes it possible to give the number of practising medical specialists: 46239 in 2011 (compared with 52788 active medical specialists in 2011).
Georgia
Source of data: Data are based on annual statistical reports collected from health establishments to the Ministry of Health and include both, public and private sectors and also facilities working under other Ministries, such as Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Defence.
Reference period: 31 December 2012
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia. Data for those two regions are unavailable.
Break in time series:
- 2012: In 2012 the Ministry of health revised the list of physician’s specialties, which led to different grouping of doctors and the data collection tool for Human Resources for Health has been essentially changed.
Germany
Source of data: German Medical Association, Medical practitioner statistics; special calculation by the Federal Statistical Office on base of data from the German Medical Association, http://www.gbe-bund.de or http://www.baek.de.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data contain the number of specialists who are actively practising medicine in public and private institutions and provide services directly to patients (head-count data).
- This group includes medical specialties (e.g. internal medicine, cardiology, neurology, radiology, pathology, oncology, occupational medicine) and excludes specialties “surgery”, “gynaecology and obstetrics”, “paediatrics”, “psychiatry” and “general practitioners”.
Greece
Source of data: Hygiene Divisions and Sections attached to prefectures, Athens Medical Association and Pireas Medical Association. Annual Doctors and Dentists survey, http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-themes?p_param=A2103.
Reference period: 31st December.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians. Unemployed physicians are included.
Hungary
Source of data: Office of Health Care Authorisation and Administrative Procedures.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data. Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals working abroad. Includes professionals who are foreigners.
- The Office of Health Authorisation and Administrative Procedures (EEKH) provided data according to the dominant specialisation practiced during medical work.
- Residents are excluded.
Iceland
Source of data:
- 2003 and onwards: The Directorate of Health, The Register of Physicians.
- Until 2002: The Directorate of Health. Data from inpatient care institutions, health centres and The State Social Security Institute.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data.
- Includes those physicians who are 70 years old or younger with permanent residence and registered domicile in Iceland (Icelanders or foreigners).
- Excludes retired professionals and professionals working abroad.
- May include a very small number of non-practising physicians.
- Physicians in training are not included (unless they already have another specialisation) as data are based on The Register of physicians, and only those who have gained the respected specialty are registered.
- In cases where a physician has more than one specialty, the counted specialisation is the newest specialty. Should two specialities be registered on the same day, the one that is more specialised is included.
Ireland
Source of data: Medical Council of Ireland and Health Service Executive.
Reference period: Data refer to 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data come from the registration statistics of the Medical Council of Ireland and include physicians registered by the Medical Council of Ireland who have entered and maintained their name as fully registered doctors in the Register of Medical Practitioners Specialist Division. The registered specialty does not necessarily equal the area of current practice. Data on trainees are included from 2011 and refer to the number of non-consultant hospital doctor posts, and is obtained from the Health Service Executive.
- Up to 2013 physicians with more than one specialty are counted within each specialty separately as data refer to the total number of doctors and not the total number of specialties. Therefore, a small number of physicians may be counted twice as it is not possible to extract them individually. For this reason, the sum of specialist groups does not equal the total specialist medical practitioners.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to physicians licensed to practice up to 2013. From 2014, the data refer to the professionally active concept.
Break in time series:
- From 2011, includes data on trainees by specialty, refers to the number of non-consultant hospital doctor posts, and is obtained from the Health Service Executive.
- In 2013, only the specialty which is the physician’s main area of work is included.
- From 2014, data include only those doctors who declared themselves as active, and had worked in Ireland in the previous 12 months, ie professionally active. Only the most recent specialism was counted for doctors with more than one specialty. Data relates to the specialty registered which may be different to the area of practice.
Israel
Source of data: The data are based on the Physician License Registry maintained by the Medical Professions Division and the Health Information Division in the Ministry of Health, for which the demographic information is periodically updated from the Population Registry at the Ministry of Interior. The source of residents' data is the Israeli Medical Association.
Reference period: End of the year.
Coverage:
- Data are for the number of professionally active physicians.
- Data include last specialty and residents at the end of the year.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Italy
Source of data: ISTAT provides data produced by CEGEDIM ITALIA - One Key database. http://crm.cegedim.com/solutions/data/data-overview/Pages/onekey-database.aspx.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Data refer to practising physicians by categories.
Kazakhstan
Source: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Reference period: 31December.
Latvia
Source of data: Health Inspectorate of Latvia; Medical Persons' Register.
Reference period: 31 December
Coverage: Interns and residents are included.
Lithuania
Source of data: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, data of entire annual survey of health establishments. Report “Health Statistics of Lithuania”, available from http://sic.hi.lt/html/en/hsl.htm. Predominant area of practice is used as criterion to classify physicians by categories.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Up to 2010 residents are excluded. Since 2011 residents are included in respective category of physicians.
Break in time series:
- 2011: Since year 2011, interns and residents are included in the respective category of physicians by specialities. In year 2010 and earlier, interns and residents were included in the category Medical doctors not further defined.
Luxembourg
Source of data: Direction de la Sante - Service des statistiques. Register of doctors and health professionals. Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Practising physicians.
Deviation from the definition: Nephrology is included. As the specialists in “nephrology” do not perform any surgical acts, they cannot be considered surgeons. For that reason they are included in the category of physicians specialised in internal medicine.
Malta
Source of data: Specialist Registers and data from the Post Graduate Training Centre, Mater Dei Hospital.
Reference period: 31st December.
Note: Accurate figures are only available from end 2008. The predominant area of practice was used to classify physicians by categories.
Coverage: Data for 2011 has been amended since the figure for Medical Group of Specialists has been calculated incorrectly.
Montenegro
Source of data: The source for all data submitted is the Institute of Public Health. Some additional information can be found in Health Statistical Yearbooks available at http://www.ijzcg.me/
Reference period: December 31st.
Coverage: Only data from the public sector. The criteria used for the data was the last specialty for which doctors have received registration.
Note: the breakdown was provided for professionally active physicians The specialists of nuclear medicine, transfuziology, clinical chemistry, physical ,medicine and rehabilitation, etc. are also included.
Netherlands
Source of data:
- Up to and including 1998: The BIG register (register installed by the Individual Health Care Professions Act), annual report (primary source: KNMG, Medisch Specialisten Registratie Commissie - Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement of Medicine, Medical Specialists Registration Commission).
- From 1999 onwards: Data for professionally active and licensed physicians based on BIG register (register of (para)medical professions) and SSB database (micro-integrated database of Statistics Netherlands with data from municipal register, tax register, social security, business register). Doctors in training: RGS (Registratiecommissie Geneeskundig Specialisten: Registration committee medical specialists). Until 2009: KNMG (Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement of Medicine).
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians since 1999; data up to 1998 refer to physicians licensed to practice.
Break in time series: 1999.
Norway
Source of data:
- From 2002: Statistics Norway; Register-based statistics on employment of health-care personnel. See http://www.ssb.no/hesospers_en/.
Reference period: 3rd week of November.
Coverage:
- Data on medical specialists are based on each physician's latest specialty. Each individual may have as many as three specialties, but only one of them is counted here.
- The figures include only the specialists within HP1-HP3. Specialists working outside these fields are not included.
Break in time series: 2009.
- Up to 2008, data include all personnel within HP1-HP3. From 2009, because of national registration and quality, it is also chosen to include physicians in HP4.
Poland
Source of data: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of National Defence.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Physicians with grade II specialisation or with title of specialist in internal diseases, alergology, angiology, audiology and phoniatrics, balneology and physical medicine, cardiology, clinical immunology, clinical oncology, clinical toxicology, dermatology and venereology, diabetology, endocrinology, forensic medicine, gastroenterology, geriatrics, gynecology oncology, haematology, hypertensiology, infectious diseases, lung diseases, medical microbiology, medical rehabilitation, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, neuropathology, nuclear medicine, oncological radiotherapy, oto-rhino-laringology, palliative medicine, pathology, pediatric cardiology, pediatric neurology, paediatric oncology and haematology, paediatric oto-rhino-laringology, occupational medicine, radiology and diagnostic imaging, rheumatology, sexology, sports medicine, transfusion medicine and transport medicine or undergoing training in these specialties.
Break in time series: 2010. Prior to 2010, nephrology was classified under “Surgical group of specialities” and neonatology under “General paediatricians”.
Note: Grade I and grade II specialisations were granted when the previous system was in force. Doctors, according to Polish law, could achieve this by September 1998. Obtaining a grade II specialisation is equivalent to the current title of specialist, but the grade I specialisation is not equivalent to the title of specialist and has no counterpart in the current system of specialised training.
Portugal
Source of data: Statistics Portugal and the Portuguese Medical Association.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- These data refer to physicians licensed to practice. All physicians (practising, active but not practising or inactive) are included.
- The specialties counted for the medical group are: Histopathology/Pathological Anatomy, Cardiology, Paediatric cardiology, Dermatovenerology, Infectious diseases, Endocrinology and nutrition, Gastro-enterology, Immunoallergology, Immunohemotherapy, Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Haematology, Internal medicine, Legal medicine/Forensics, Nuclear medicine, Tropical medicine, Neurology, Neuroradiology, Medical oncology, Otorhinolaryngology, Clinical pathology, Pneumology/Respiratory medicine, Radiodiagnostic/Clinical radiology, Radiotherapy/Clinical oncology, Rheumatology, Occupational medicine and Public health.
- In 2014, data were revised to include Occupational medicine and Public health from 1980 and 1992 respectively.
Deviation from the definition:
- Data refer to physicians licensed to practice.
- Some physicians are licensed to practice in more than one specialty. These physicians are accounted in all specialties they have. Therefore the sum of physicians by categories is higher than the actual total number of physicians.
Republic of Moldova
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health Management, Annual statistical report N17 “On staff and cadres of health institutions”. http://cnms.md/areas/statistics/anyar/.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign physicians are not included. Interns and residents are not included.
Romania
Source of data: Ministry of Health for the period 1994-2004, provided the medical specialist in its network. National Institute of Statistics since 2005, Activity of Sanitary Units – annual survey performed by NIS.
Reference period: data as of 31st December.
Coverage: From 1994-2004, the data cover medical specialists only from Ministry of Health network. Data from 2005 till now refer to all professionally active physicians from public and private sector. The medical group of specialities include: internal medicine, neonatology, diabetology, nutrition and metabolic diseases, rehabilitation, physical medicine and balneology, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, pneumology (including respiratory medicine), oncology, rheumatology, neurology, otho-rhino-laringology (from 2006), radiology, infectious diseases, haematology (from 2009), dermatology and pathology (from 2006). Data on microbiology-bacteriology are not available. In accordance with national laws, the microbiology-bacteriology is "over specialization" of laboratory medicine. Explanation: Because in 2007and 2008 the total number of residents was included in Generalist medical physicians category, NIS used estimates, in order to allocate residents physicians on specialties The differences between years can be explained in that NIS did not collect all medical specialties (NIS collected only the specialties requested by Eurostat). Because there was no unitary methodology for the inclusion/exclusion of some medical specialties in the new categories, we did not have data for all (see the last column “other specialties n.e.c.”). Gradually we expanded the number of specialties thus being able to better allocate them according to European methodology and the last column, “other specialties n.e.c.”, decreased considerably.
Deviation from the definition: specialists in occupational medicine are not included up to 2004. Break in the series:
- 2005 because were included also data from private sector and other public network.
- 2006 because the physicians by specialties include the residents.
- Since 2010 data refer to practising physicians.
Russian Federation
Source of data: Annual reporting forms ?17 «Information about the medical and pharmaceutical personnel", ?30 “Information about medical organization” and ?47 “Information about activities of medical organizations”, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. Data include physicians in the following specialties: Allergy and immunology, gastroenterology, hematology, geriatrics, pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, diabetology, infectious diseases, cardiology, nephrology, occupational pathology, pulmonology, rheumatology, therapy without district therapists, endocrinology
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes only data for medical institutions of the Ministry of Health. Data from institutions of other ministries and private sector are not included.
Deviation from the definition: Interns and resident physicians are not included.
-.Note: The criteria used for placing physicians in the specialties: the prevailing (main) area of their practice.
San Marino
Data not available.
Serbia
Source of data: Institute of Public Health of Serbia, National register on health care human resources. Data as of December 31. http://www.batut.org.rs/.
Coverage: Data for Kosovo-Metohija province are not included in the coverage of data for the Republic of Serbia. Data from health institutions under other ministries (military services, prisons, social services) than the Ministry of Health are not included. Data from private health sector are not included.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians
Slovakia
Source of data: National Health Information Center. Data were provided by the Register of Health Professionals.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- In the category of “medical group of specialties”, practising physicians are include whose main area of practice is in internal medicine, infectology, pneumology and ftiseology, neurology, otorhinolaryngology, dermatovenerology, clinical oncology, radiology, clinical biochemistry, physical training medicine, physiotherapy, balneology and rehabilitation, pathologic anatomy, haematilogy nad transfusiology, geriatrics, endocrinology, aviation medicine, paediatric neurology, paediatric otorhinolaryngology, child dermatovenerology, paediatric immunilogy and allergology, paediatric gheumatology, paediatric endocrinology, paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition, paediatric cardiology, clinical immunology, allergology and anti-infective immunology, functional diagnostics, hepatology, paeditric oncology, acupuncture, andrology, abdominal ultrasonography in adults, oncology in surgery, paediatric hematology and oncology, and paliative care, etc. in accordance with the definition.
- Data are available only for the year 2007. The new Register of Health Professionals was introduced in 2007. This register is not updated every year; therefore data are available for 2007 only. Moreover, past data are not available because of a different data processing system.
Slovenia
Source of data: National Institute of Public Health, Slovenia; National Health Care Providers Database.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: The National Health Care Providers Database is a registry with total (100 %) coverage of health workers. Includes the following medical specialities: Internal medicine, Communicable diseases (infectology), Neurology, Dermatovenerology, Otorhinolaryngology, Transfusion medicine, Physical and rehabilitation medicine, Radiology, Oncology with radiotherapy, Nuclear medicine, Pathology, Forensic medicine, Medical microbiology, Occupational, traffic and sports medicine, Clinical microbiology, Hematology, Rheumatology, Gastroenterology, Internal oncology, Nephrology, Pneumology, Child neurology.
Spain
Source of data:
- Up to 2009: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equity from Statistics on Health Establishments Providing Inpatient Care (ESCRI). http://www.msssi.gob.es/estadEstudios/estadisticas/estHospiInternado/inforAnual/homeESCRI.htm.
- Since 2010: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equity from Specialised Care Information System (Sistema de Informacion de Atencion Especializada - SIAE).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- All public and private hospitals in Spain are included. Specialised out-patient clinics depending on a general hospital (National Health System) also are included.
- Doctors in training (interns and residents) are included in “Medical group of specialists” since 2010 (until 2009, all doctors in training are included in the category “Other specialists n.e.c.”).
- Radiologists are not included (they are included in the category “Other specialists n.e.c.” with labs, pathologists and doctors in training) until 2009.
- Oto-rhino-laringologists are included in the “Surgical group of specialists” until 2009.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer only to specialists working in hospitals. Hence the sum of physicians by categories does not correspond to the total number of physicians.
Break in time series: 2010.
Sweden
Source of data: National Board of Health and Welfare. National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
Coverage:
- Specialists include all physicians employed within the health-care sector possessing a specialist competence (excluding competence in family medicine).
- 100 per cent coverage.
Switzerland
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel; Swiss Medical Association (FMH), Bern; medical statistics of physicians; yearly census.
Deviation from the definition: Interns and residents are not included.
- Since 2011, former specialists in internal medicine are not registered under medical group of specialists but in one single category under Generalist medical practitioners, according to the Swiss medical association.
Break in time series: 2011: former specialists in internal medicine are not registered under medical specialists but in one single category under Generalist medical practitioners, according to the Swiss medical association.
Coverage: Since 2008 the data refer to practising physicians.
Note: No data on physicians in training by categories are available.

TFYR Macedonia
Source of data: Institute for Public Health -Skopje. Report for health staff in health sector (3-00-60)..
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: The category "internal medicine" comprises specialists in internal medicine and subspecialists in the following specialties: pulmonology, cardiology, gastroenterology, haematology, nephrology, rheumatology, endocrinology and toxicology. Interns and residents are included. Up until 2005, the data sets for private sector are incomplete, because private sector physicians were not sending reports regularly to the relevant organisations and the data for physicians by categories does not sum up to the total number of professionally active physicians. Since 2006, more strict controls for regular reporting were put into practice by the Ministry of Health, which resulted in very accurate report sending and vastly improved evidence of health personnel. Since year 2006, private sector physicians are included and the sum of physicians by categories equals the total number of physicians.
Deviation from the definition: Physicians (medical specialists) are 'professionally active'. Break in the series: 2006. Differences in the data reported for each year for doctors, specialists example haematologists, rheumatologists and toxicologists is because they move from public institutions to private.
Turkey
Source of data: General Directorate for Health Services, Ministry of Health and ESPC Higher Education Statistics.
Coverage:
- The number of medical group of specialties includes medical specialists and medical residents of these branches in all health care facilities.
- Physical treatment and rehabilitation specialists and residents are included in the internal medicine category.
- All sectors (Ministry of Health, university, private and other - other public establishments and local administrations) are included. MoND-affiliated facilities are not included until 2011.
Deviation from the definition: Data refer to professionally active physicians.
Break in time series:
- MoND-affiliated facilities are included since 2012.
Turkmenistan
Source of data: Report from of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan. ? 17 “Health employment”
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes data from institutions under the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan, data from other Ministries or sectors not included.
Ukraine
Source of data: Centre of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health, Report form ? 17 “Health employment” of the Ministry of Health, other agencies and private entities.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: data on foreign physicians are not included. Interns and residents are not included (as included into the category “Other specialists not elsewhere classified”)
Break in time series: 2009, before 2009 data included only health professionals working in the institutions reporting to the Ministry of Health, starting from 2009 data coverage is complete.
United Kingdom
Source of data:
- England: Health & Social Care Information Centre: http://www.hscic.gov.uk.
- Scotland: Information Services Division, Scottish Workforce Information Standard System.
- Wales: Welsh Government: http://gov.wales/statistics-and-research/?topic=Health+and+social+care&lang=en.
- Northern Ireland: Department for Health, Social Services and Public Safety: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/index/stats_research.
Reference period: Data as at 30th September.
Coverage:
- Does not include private sector.
- Northern Ireland: Data exclude bank staff, research fellows, clinical assistants and hospital/medical practitioners. Data from 2000 exclude staff on career breaks. The UK equivalent of interns and residents, i.e. foundation doctors and registrars, will be included in this data. Data for 2013 is not available due to the phased implementation of a new human resources IT system.
- Scotland: Data excludes locum staff.
Deviation from the definition:
- Scotland: The sum of GPs and specialists is greater than the total number of physicians due to some staff holding more than one post. There is currently no conventional way of assigning such staff to one group only.
- Scotland: Data exclude Ophthalmic Medical Practitioners.
Estimation method:
- Northern Ireland: Department code has been used as an approximation of specialty.
- Wales: 2006 - With the exception of GP data, these data have been estimated by applying the proportional breakdown from 2005 and 2007 to the 2006 total.
- Wales: 2014 data were not available in time for this collection and so the previous year’s figures were used instead. They will be updated with the correct data in next year’s collection.
- Northern Ireland: 2013 data remain unavailable and continue to be an estimate of 2012. The data are unavailable due to the introduction of a new HR system in 2013.
Uzbekistan
Source of data: Institute of Health and Medical Statistics, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reporting form 15-SSV “Report on Health personnel by categories”.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: data include personnel working within the system of the Ministry of Health only.
Note: the predominant area of practice was used as criteria for allocating (to categories) of doctors who have more than one specialty.