Midwives graduates, per 100 000
Human resources indicators: Indicators include the number and density of a wide range of health personnel (such as physicians, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists and health care assistants), according to three different concepts (those practising, professionally active and licensed to practice). Information on employment in hospitals and numbers of medical and other graduates is also available.
Technical resources data: Data include the number and density of hospitals and hospital beds, stratified by ownership of facility (public, non-profit-making private and for-profit private), in addition to the number of beds for long-term care.
HlthRes-DB also contains indicators on the availability of the following medical equipment: computed tomography (CT) scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) units, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, gamma cameras, digital subtraction angiography units, mammographs, radiation therapy equipment and lithotriptors.
Coverage: HlthRes-DB contains data from the 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. To be updated yearly, usually in late summer, it is currently available in English and Russian.
Indicator code: grad.mid.rate This indicator shares the definition with the parent indicator "Midwives graduates, total number".
Number of students who have obtained a recognised qualification in midwifery in a given year.
Reference period: The end of the school year.
Coverage: Graduates with foreign nationalities are not included.
Break in time series: Until 2008 the data includes midwives graduates in state secondary medical schools. Since 2008, the data includes 11 state and 10 private secondary medical schools.
Note: An explanation for the sharp increase from 1997 till 1998 is the increase in admission to the obstetrical department. The decrease in the number of graduates-midwives in 2012 was due to reduction in the number of state-funded students in the state medical schools.
Break in time series: In Austria, in 2009 the graduation of midwives changed from a college to a university degree (University of Applied Science / “Fachhochschule”).
- Figures up to 2008 include only college degrees, in 2009, 2010 and 2011 both, college and university degrees are included and the figure 2012 is only for university degrees.
Reference period: data as of December 31
Note: foreign graduates are included.
Note: In 1999 the preparation and publication of midwives were stopped and replaced with Physician Assistants (paramedics), and the specialty “General Medicine”. The graduates are qualified "nurse-midwife" and may seek employment as a position of "midwife", or in the position of "assistant."
Reference period: from 15.11 of the previous year (t-1) to 14.11 of the index year (t). E.g. data for year 2010 contains number of graduates from 15.11.2009 to 14.11.2010.
The specialties for medical doctors, dentists, pharmacists, midwives and nursing are taught in public higher schools. Ministry of Education and Science is determining annually plan scheme (limits for new entrants) for each specialty in public higher schools, which varies at different years according to national needs. Thus, the number of enrolments and respectively graduates are varying during the different years. The reported data represents the real number of graduations. According to the national legislation in 2007 the term of training of midwives was increased by a year.
Break in time series:
- 2007: According to the national legislation in 2007 the length of training of midwives was increased by a year.
Reference period: From the year 2008.data are provided by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. Data refers not on calendar, but on academic years. For example, registered data for the year 2008, refers to the 2007/2008 academic year (01.10.2007 – 30.09.2008)
- No midwives graduated in 1998 because of changes in educational programmes.
- Till 2006, data relate to the number of graduates from paramedical schools in the qualified midwife field of study (bachelor graduates from universities in the midwifery field of study are included in nursing graduates).
- Data relate to number of graduates from paramedical schools in the qualified midwife field of study (graduating till 2006) and bachelor graduates from universities in the midwifery field of study (graduating since 2004).
- State Statistical Office, annual reporting.
- Ministry of Education and Research.
Reference period: Given year.
Break in time series: 2000 and 2001.
- In 1999 the length of time of the educational programme of nursing specialists was extended.
Reference period: Calendar year.
Break in time series: The two-year curriculum was discontinued in 1971. Specialist nurse-based midwife education was run 1968-1986, and the last midwives graduated in 1994. The new midwife education on secondary level was started in 1985. The length of education was 3.5 years or 4.5 years, and it was lengthened with obligatory training in 1993. Since 1995, midwife education has followed the EU regulation. Additionally, all graduates with the new secondary level health care professional education have been authorised to nurse since 1 August 1996. The first graduates completed their studies in 2000.
Coverage: Data come from statistics compiled from a survey carried out in training institutions for health professionals which estimates the number of degrees valid at the national level, in metropolitan France and overseas departments and territories.
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia. Data for those two regions are unavailable.
- Professional midwives with a 3-year education who passed their examinations are included.
- Data for the regional state of Hesse are estimated.
- Data are available from 1996 onwards.
Coverage: All the data refers to graduates from Greek universities. (The 1980-1982, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990 figures cannot be retrieved from publications.)
Note: The remarkably low number of graduates from 1983 and 1984 is due to the fact that there was a serious change in the education system. The Technological Educational Institutions have replaced the higher technical and vocational educational institutions (KATEE).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Since 1990, data are provided for graduates in secondary vocational schools and professional nursing education, in addition to university level graduates in health care. The data have been recalculated from 1990 and harmonized with the definitions of OECD and EUROSTAT. From 2011 data are provided for graduates in bachelor level.
Estimation method: Data for 2000 are estimated. The response rate of data collection in 2000 was only 98%. Therefore, these data were corrected according to the grounds of data collection in 2001.
Break in time series: There is a temporary break in the numbers of midwives graduating in 2003, because the length of the vocational training of this field was increased from 2 to 3 years.
- As of 1996: Statistics Iceland, Register of graduations.
- 1980-1995: Directorate of Health.
Reference period: As of 1996, the calendar year.
Coverage: Students who have obtained a recognised qualification in midwifery in Iceland (UI) in a given year.
- Up to 1998: An Bord Altranais (Nursing Board).
- From 1999 onwards: Higher Education Authority.
Reference period: Calendar year.
Break in time series: The figures up to 1998 relate to the number of newly registered midwifery qualifications in a given year. The figures from 1999 relate to the number of graduates in a given year. A 2-year training programme was introduced in 1982.
Coverage: Universities, Institutes of Technology and Designated Institutions. Midwifery prescribing qualifications are excluded.
Coverage: Data are for new licensed midwives who graduated in Israel.
- There were no courses in 2003-2004 but a few midwives finished previously started studies.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Break in time series:
- From 2000: Midwives graduated. Data from 2000 onwards refer to the new education system of midwives (to become a midwife it is necessary to get a 3-year university degree).
- 1999: Midwives with university diploma. Data refer to the previous education system of midwives (to become a midwife it was necessary to get a diploma at university level).
- 1996-1998: Midwives with diploma. Data refer to the previous education system of midwives (to become a midwife it was necessary to get a two-year diploma).
Coverage: The annual surveys collected and compiled by the Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) are as follows:
- on higher education institutions and colleges. Break in series: 2008: Change in data source.
Note: Source of data prior to 2008 not clear.
- Statistics Norway collects student data from the administrative systems of the various tertiary institutions. The administrative systems in tertiary institutions create data files in the format specified by Statistics Norway. Information on completed doctoral degrees is collected from NIFU (http://www.nifustep.no/English/Pages/default.aspx).
- Tertiary graduation statistics include all individuals who have completed a degree of 2 years or longer from an educational institution classified by the Standard Industrial Classification as a tertiary institution. Registration of completed educational activities occurs during the period 1 October in year x, 30 September in year x+1.
- See http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/02/40/eksuvh_en/ and then 'About the statistics'.
Coverage: Complete coverage as statistics are based on enumeration of graduates in tertiary education. Sampling errors and non-response errors do not exist.
Break in time series: Individually based data on completed education have been published annually since they were first collected in 1973/74 (academic year). Most variables are comparable, but some have changed. The revised Norwegian Standard Classification of Education (http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/04/90/nos_c751_en/) recoded education courses to enable comparison of newer and older data (also including a recoding to ISCED-97). While education courses are reasonably comparable over time, other variables are not (e.g. coding of institution types).
- Until 1990: publication of Ministry of National Education, “Higher education, basic data”.
- From 1990: Central Statistical Office, reports S-10.
Break in time series: 1990 due to change of data source.
Coverage: Number of graduates with first university level and master’s degree from midwifery programme, including foreigners who graduated in Poland.
Note: The education of midwives is now in a process of transformation, which means that traditional nursing schools were closed down and a new license and masters degree-based system is being established. This will allow the number of personnel with higher education to increase in these two occupational groups. Since 2003, Medical Universities have provided two types of studies for midwives: a 3-year licensing degree and complementary studies for those who do not have the licence. After graduation, there is the possibility of a 2-year master’s degree. There is a concern about double counting of graduates in cases where a person first completes a bachelor’s degree and then a master’s degree. Each year universities give information about the number of graduates without identifying the people who continue their education in the second degree. As a result, these graduates are registered again two years later upon completion of their second degree.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign health personnel are not included.
Reference period: academic year.
Coverage: The data cover public and private sector.
Break in time series: In 1994, the number of midwives who graduated dropped from 184 to 0 because of changes within the Slovak health education and training system.
Reference period: 31st December.
- Until 1999: NBHW, Yearbook of Health and Medical Care.
- From 2000: National Board of Health and Welfare. National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
- Data refer to midwives licensed in a given year. Therefore, data include both domestically trained midwives and those trained abroad who apply for a Swedish license.
- 100 per cent coverage.
Source of data: State Statistical Office (SSO), Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia
Reference period: 31st December
Note: Starting from 2008, midwifery education becomes university-level education (instead of secondary school level). For 2011, the number of midwives graduates is from academic school year 2010/2011 and 2012 from academic school year 2011/2012.
Break in time series: 2008.
- Data refer to total number of midwifery graduates of vocational high schools of health and universities.
- Midwifery departments in vocational health high schools accepted an increasing number of midwifery students until the mid-1990s in response to domestic needs. In the late 1990s, vocational health high schools started not to enroll any students in midwifery section. However, in the early 2000s, a growing need for midwives came to the agenda again, and these vocational schools begun accepting more midwifery students again, explaining the rise in the number of graduates since 2004. In 2005, the vocational health schools again started not to enroll any new students so there has been no midwifery section graduates since 2008 in these vocational schools.
Reference period: end of school year.
Reference period: Data are for financial years, e.g. year 2009 data cover the period 1st April 2009 to 31st March 2010.
Estimation method: The actual number of midwifery graduates is not available. The figure is an estimate based on the number of midwives newly registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (which is an essential requirement for working as a midwife in the United Kingdom), not on the number who graduated with a relevant qualification (the difference being that not all midwives who graduate necessarily come onto the register).