EUROPEAN HEALTH INFORMATION GATEWAY

  • Number of physicians, physical persons (physical persons) (Line chart)
  • Number of physicians, physical persons (physical persons) (Bar chart)
Data set notes
European Health for All database (WHO)

The following abbreviations are used in the indicator titles:
•    SDR: age-standardized death rates (see HFA-DB user manual/Technical notes, page 13, for details)
•    FTE: full-time equivalent
•    PP: physical persons
•    PPP$: purchasing power parities expressed in US $, an internationally comparable scale reflecting the relative domestic purchasing powers of currencies.

Indicator notes
Number of physicians, physical persons (PP)
Indicator code: E275201.T

Data for physicians (ISCO-08 category “221 Medical doctors”, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/index.htm) for concept closest to practicing is given.

If data for practicing physicians is available, then this data is reported. If data for practicing physicians is not available, but data for professionally active physicians is available, then the data for professionally active physicians is reported. If data for neither practicing nor professionally active physicians is available, then data for licensed physicians is reported.

Note: The number should be at the end of the calendar year.

Practising, professionally active and licensed physicians are defined as follows:

Practising physicians provide services directly to patients. Inclusion - Persons who have completed studies in medicine at university level (granted by adequate diploma) and who are licensed to practice - Interns and resident physicians (with adequate diploma and providing services under supervision of other medical doctors during their postgraduate internship or residency in a health care facility) - Salaried and self-employed physicians delivering services irrespectively of the place of service provision - Foreign physicians licensed to practice and actively practising in the country Exclusion - Students who have not yet graduated - Dentists and stomatologists / dental surgeons - Physicians working in administration, research and in other posts that exclude direct contact with patients - Unemployed physicians and retired physicians - Physicians working abroad

Professionally active physicians include practising physicians and other physicians for whom their medical education is a prerequisite for the execution of the job. Inclusion - Physicians who provide services directly to patients - Physicians working in administration and management positions requiring a medical education - Physicians conducting research into human disorders and illness and preventive and curative methods - Physicians participating in the development and implementation of health promotion and public health laws and regulations - Physicians preparing scientific papers and reports Exclusion - Dentists and stomatologists/dental surgeons - Physicians who hold a post / job under which medical education is not required - Unemployed physicians and retired physicians - Physician working abroad

Physicians licensed to practice include practising and other (non-practising) physicians who are registered and entitled to practice as health care professionals. Inclusion - Physicians who provide services directly to patients - Physicians for whom their medical education is a prerequisite for the execution of the job - Physicians for whom their medical education is NOT a prerequisite for the execution of the job - Physicians licensed to practice but who due to various reasons are not economically active (e.g. unemployed or retired) - Physicians working abroad Exclusion - Dentists and stomatologists/dental surgeons_
Country notes
Albania
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Ministry of Health.
Andorra
Data refers to practising physicians.
NA
Armenia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Republican Research and Information Health Centre and the National Statistic Service
of the Republic of Armenia, Report form of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Armenia ? 17
?Health employment?, http://healthinfo.am/Statistical%20Report.htm, Statistical book, Armenia,
English version (zip) 2009.
Reference period: 31 December.
Deviation from the definition: The data on foreign physicians licensed to practice and actively
practicing in the country are not included because they are missing from the report forms.
Austria
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Osterreichische Arztekammer - Vollerhebung / Austrian Medical Chamber - total of
members.
Reference period: December/January (reference day varies).
Coverage:
- includes physicians in activity who are member of the Austrian Medical Chamber;
- includes the whole medical field (private practices, hospitals, etc.);
- includes interns (\Turnusarzte\");
- excludes physicians without medical practice (in industry
Azerbaijan
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Reference period: data as of December 31.
Belarus
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of Data: National Statistics Committee of Belarus http://belstat.gov.by/; National Archives
of the Republic of Belarus http://narb.by/.
Reporting period: 31 December
Deviation from definition: Data on foreign doctors are not included because this information is not
available.
Break in time series: 2007, 2010 and 2011.
Medical interns were included in this category during the years of 2007 to 2009 and in 2011. In
other years they are included in the category \Professionally active physicians.\""
Belgium
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- Since 1995: Institut National d'Assurance Maladie Invalidite, ?Rapport Annuel?.
- Before 1995: Ministry of Social Affairs, Public Health and Environment, \Donnees statistiques
concernant le corps medical
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source: Public Health Institute of FB&H - Annual report organisation structure of health personnel.

Public Health Institute of Republica Srpska - Annual report organisation structure of health
personnel.
Bulgaria
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: National Statistical Institute, Exhaustive annual survey
Reference period: 31st December
Coverage: All physicians (head counts) who worked on a basic labour contract in outpatient and
inpatient establishments, as well as those who practice in other health establishments - centres for
emergency medical care, centres for transfusion haematology, homes for medical and social care for
children, Hygiene-epidemiological inspections and others.
Data are comparable over the whole period.
2004-2007 Data for practising physicians are revised. The revision was done in order to provide
harmonised data and physicians with maxillo-facial surgery speciality are included in the total
number of practising physicians.
Croatia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:ÿCroatian National Institute of Public Health, Health Manpower Register
Coverage: Private medical practitioners have been included since 1993.
Deviation from the definition: maxillofacial surgeons are included up to 2008.
Break in time series: 2009.
Cyprus
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Statistical Service of Cyprus; Public Sector Administrative Sources and Pancyprian
Medical Association for the Private Sector.
Validity of the source: For the years 1985, 1987, 1995 and 2000 figures were obtained from the
Census of Doctors, Dentists and Clinics.
Reference period: 31st December of the reference year
Czechia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Czech Republic

Source of data: Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic; Registry of
Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Only employees on payroll are included.
- Until 1999, physicians working in other central organs not included. Since the year 2000 data
covers physicians in all health services.
- Since 2003, excluded physicians working in Public Health Stations (administrative offices for
public health protection and supervision).
- Until 2003, also included physicians working only in the sector of Education and not providing
direct medical care to patients.
- Number of physicians working in the sector of Labour and Social Affairs only estimated for 2004.
Break in time series: 2000.
Denmark
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: National Board of Health, Labour Register for Health Personnel.
Reference period: 31st December. Data show the number for January first the following year.
Coverage:
- Physicians who have a license to practice and whose status in the Central Personnel Register (CPR)
is active, i.e. in the country (not dead or abroad); connected to HP1, HP2 or HP3 as either a)
employed, b) employed, being on leave or c) employed, receiving sickness benefit.
- Dentists are not included.
Break in time series: 1992. Change in the data collection.
Estonia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- Annual reports, National Institute for Health Development, Department of Health Statistics.
http://pxweb.tai.ee/esf/pxweb2008/Database_en/HCresources/05Personnel/05Personnel.asp
- 1960-1984 data published by Statistics Estonia
(http://pub.stat.ee/px-web.2001/I_Databas/Social_life/05Health/04Health_care_institutions/04Health_c
are_institutions.asp).
Reference period: 31st of December.
Coverage:
- Practising physicians who provide services directly to patients, all health care providers
included..
- Since 1992, the number does not include medical staff working in research or other areas. The
military area has been included since 2010.
- Since 1997, the number of physicians includes resident physicians and interns; before that time
interns were not included.
Breaks in time series: 1985, 1992 and 2005.
- 1992: The types of institutions included have been changed over the period in question. Until
1991, the data correspond more to professionally active physicians (practising + working in health
sector); from 1992 on they include practising only.
- Until 2004, the number of practising physicians was based on their last or main educational
qualification (data not available by age group) and specialty.
- Since 2005, the head count distribution is made according to the main occupational activity (data
not available by gender and age group).
Finland
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Finnish Medical Association. The Register of the Finnish Medical Association which
is updated by a yearly survey covering all physicians licensed to practice in Finland who are not
retired.
Reference period: Mid-March.
Coverage: Physicians are classified according to their main employment. Professionally active
physicians include physicians with teaching or research as their main employment. However, these
physicians are excluded from practising physicians (even though they may have part-time position as
a practising physician). From 2009 onwards, information on practising physicians has not been
available, and all statistics refer to professionally active physicians. Includes physicians who are
under 64 years old.
France
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Ministere du Travail, de l?Emploi et de la Sante - Direction de la Recherche, des
Etudes, de l'Evaluation et des Statistiques (DREES), Sous-Direction de l'Observation de la Sante et
de l'Assurance maladie, Bureau des Professions de sante.
- From 2011 (01/01/2012): RPPS (Repertoire partage des professionnels de sante), ASIP-SANTE RPPS.
2011 is the first year available for data referring to the concept of ?practising physicians?.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data refer only to practising physicians, either self-employed (?liberaux?) or salaried.
- Data refer to metropolitan France and D.O.M. (overseas departments).
- All public and private hospitals and clinics are covered.
- Stomatologists and dentists are not included in the number of physicians.
- Interns and residents are not included.
- Doctors who do not provide direct care to patients are excluded.
Deviation from the definition: Interns and residents are not included.
Georgia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Data are based on annual statistical reports from health establishments to the
Ministry of Health and include both, public and private sectors and also facilities working under
other Ministries, such as Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Defence.
Reference period: 31 December 2012
Coverage: The provided data cover all regions except separatist regions, Abkhazia and South Osetia.
Data for those two regions are unavailable.
Germany
Data refers to practising physicians.
Germany

Source of data: German Medical Association, Medical practitioner statistics; http://www.gbe-bund.de/
(Home > Health Care System > Employees and Facilities of Healthcare > Physicians, Treatment by
Physicians > Table (adÿhoc): Medical practitioners with specialisation, German Medical Association)
or http://www.baek.de.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Data contain the number of physicians who are actively practising medicine in public and private
institutions and provide services directly to patients (head-count data).
- Included are general practitioners, specialists, interns and resident physicians and foreign
physicians licensed to practice and actively practising medicine in the country.
- The data exclude dentists, stomatologists as well as qualified physicians working abroad, working
in administration, research and industry positions, unemployed and retired physicians.
- Excluded are students who have not yet graduated.
Greece
Data refers to professionally active physicians.
Source of data: Hygiene Divisions and Sections attached to prefectures, Athens Medical Association
and Pireas Medical Association. Annual Doctors and Dentists survey,
http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-themes?p_param=A2103.
Reference period: 31st December.
Deviation from the definition: Unemployed physicians are included.
Hungary
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- Up to 1999: Ministry of Health.
- In 2000 and 2001: Data are estimates from the National Institute for Strategic Health Research
(ESKI) based on the operational registration of the Hungarian Medical Association.
- Between 2002 and 2006: Operational registration of the Hungarian Medical Association.
- From 2007: Office of Health Care Authorisation and Administrative Procedures.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data. Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals
working abroad. Includes professionals who are foreigners.
- Practising physicians (including residents) reported to the National Register of Physicians.
- From 1990: Includes specialists, GPs, family paediatricians, residents, and non-specialised
physicians. The report is made according to the 1990 account of the Central Statistical Office
\Number of active physicians by sex and specialisation\".
Break in time series: 1980
Iceland
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- 2003 and onwards: The Directorate of Health, The Register of Physicians.
- Until 2002: The Directorate of Health. Data from inpatient care institutions, health centres and
The State Social Security Institute.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data.
- Includes those physicians who are 70 years old or younger with permanent residence and registered
domicile in Iceland (Icelanders or foreigners).
- Excludes retired professionals and professionals working abroad.
- Practising physicians - may refer more to professionally active physicians, as these data include
non-practising physicians (but this group of non-practising physicians is very small).
- May include a very small number of non-practising physicians.
- The peak in 2001 is due to ?change of source and methodology?.
Break in time series: Break in series in 2005 due to a revision of methodology. The methodology was
altered in 2009 in such a way that registered domicile is now taken into account when counting the
number of physicians, not only permanent residence. Figures for previous years, back to 2005, were
revised accordingly.
Ireland
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Department of Health
Reference Period: end of December
Coverage: The data covers the following:
Family doctors (GPs) registered with the Irish College of General Practitioners - ICGP (plus an
estimate of approx. 10% who are not registered with the ICGP). Also included are GPs in training.
Consultant (specialist) doctors who work exclusively privately.
A small number of non-consultant hospital doctors working privately. This is estimated from a
Workforce Planning survey.
Consultants and non-consultant hospital doctors working in the public health service.
A small number of doctors working full-time in the Irish Prison Service.
Data should be considered an estimate as there may be practising doctors working elsewhere in the
health service not covered in the data. Also there may be some overlap amongst GPs in training and
non-consultant hospital doctors working in the public health service.
Israel
Data refers to practising physicians.
Israel

Source of data: The data are based on the Labour Force Survey which is conducted routinely by the
Central Bureau of Statistics and includes persons who had worked for at least one hour during the
week before the survey, for pay, profit or other consideration. Occupation is determined by the type
of work performed by the interviewed person at his place of work, without regard to what he studied
if his work is not in that field. The classification of occupations is based on the classification
of the International Labour Office (ILO): International Standard Classification of Occupations ISCO
88.
Coverage:
- Data may include interns who have not yet received a license but report themselves in the survey
as working as physicians.
- The sample of practising physicians is relatively small and therefore the data are subject to
large variations due to sample errors and wide confidence intervals. Any data analysis should be
carried out with caution.
Estimation method: Moving average of three years (numbers for previous, current and next years) was
made in order to diminish the fluctuations in the numbers. For example, the number of practicing
physicians in 1996 is an average of 1995-1997. The number for 2011 is an average of 2010-2012.
Break in time series: From January 2012, the Central Bureau of Statistics has made a transition from
a quarterly system of measuring labour force characteristics to a new and improved system that
better suits the latest international recommendations on employment and unemployment - Monthly
Labour Force Survey. Therefore the 2012 (original) data refer to the entire labour force (including
the military service) and not to the civilian labour force, as it was before.
Further information:
http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/labour_survey04/labour_force_survey/answer_question_e_2012.pdf.
Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant
Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the
Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of
international law.
Italy
Data refers to practising physicians.
a) For General practitioners and General paediatricians:
Source of data: Ministry of Health - D.G. of Health Information System - Office of Statistics,
Ministry of Health. Publication: ?Attivita gestionali ed economiche delle ASL e Aziende
ospedaliere?, Annuario Statistico del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (published annually). Publication
available on the web site of the Ministry of Health.
http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/documentazione/p6_2_8_2.jsp?lingua=italiano.
Reference period: 1st January.
Coverage: Total survey on all general practitioners and paediatricians practising for the National
Health System. General practitioners provide the first level care to all citizens aged 14 years old
and over (consultations, visits, prescription of medicines, and referrals for laboratory tests or
specialist visits).

b) For Specialized physicians and Other generalist medical practitioners:
Source of data: ISTAT provides data produced by CEGEDIM ITALIA - One Key database.
http://crm.cegedim.com/solutions/data/data-overview/Pages/onekey-database.aspx.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Data refer to practising physicians. Interns/residents are included in the data. Medical
interns and residents who have completed a basic medical university education and are undertaking
postgraduate clinical training can provide services as generalist medical practitioners in the
private sector only (not in the National Health Service). The number of physicians in training is
not available. Medical interns and residents who are pursuing postgraduate training are included as
generalist medical practitioners.
Kazakhstan
Data refers to practising physicians.
NA
Kyrgyzstan
Data refers to practising physicians.
NA
Latvia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- Since 2005: Health Inspectorate of Latvia; Medical Persons' Register.
- 2004 and earlier: Health Statistics and Medical Technologies State Agency; Statistical Report
No.17 \Report About Medical Staff\".
Reference period: 31 December.
Break in series: 2005: change in data source."
Lithuania
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Health Information Centre of Institute of Hygiene, data of entire annual survey of
health establishments. Report ?Health Statistics of Lithuania?, available from
http://sic.hi.lt/html/en/hsl.htm.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: The number of practising physicians at the end of the year includes all professionally
active physicians working in health system, excluding physicians working in administration, health
education and research, hygiene physicians, epidemiologists. Interns and resident physicians are
included.
Luxembourg
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Direction de la Sante - Service des statistiques. Register of doctors and health
professionals.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
Until 1999:
- Includes physicians working in administration and research. Stomatologists included until 1997;
they were classified with dentists starting in 1998.
- Stomatologists can be identified and are classified with dentists. Dental surgeons can be
identified since 2005 and are classified with dentists.
- Retired physicians are not included. However, the end of activity of self-employed physicians is
often noted with some time lag.
From 2000:
- Head count data. Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals
working abroad. Includes professionals who are foreigners.
- Doctors who do not work in direct contact with patients (laboratories, administration, R&D, etc)
are excluded, and interns are included.
Break in time series: 2000.
Malta
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Data is compiled at the Department of Health Information and Research from data on
the Medical Council Register.
Reference period: 31st December.
Monaco
Data refers to practising physicians.
NA
Montenegro
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: The source for all data submitted is the Institute of Public Health. Some additional
information can be found in Health Statistical Yearbooks available at http://www.ijzcg.me/
Reference period: December 31st.
Coverage: Only physicians from public sector and professionally active are included until 2010
2005..
Deviation from the definition: From 2005 till 2011 In 2010. specialists (social medicine, health
statistics, and managers) and residents (social medicine, health statistics, and managers) , as
well as some managers are excluded
Netherlands
Data refers to professionally active physicians.
Source of data: Data based on BIG register (register of (para)medical professions) and SSB database
(micro-integrated database of Statistics Netherlands with data from the municipal register, tax
register, social security, and business register).
Coverage:
- Data refer to physicians who:
are licensed to practice;
live and work in the Netherlands;
for employees: are active in a health- or social care sector or a health-care related sector; or
for self-employed specialists: are economically active (their license requires that they have been
practising ? not necessarily fulltime ? in the past five years).
- List of NACE codes used for health- or social care and health-care related sectors: NACE v1: 851,
853, 2441, 2442, 331, 5146, 5231, 5232, 5248.2 (opticians), 6022 (part of transport for healthcare),
6602.3, 6602.4 (pension fund part for health care occupations), 6603 (part of health insurance funds
and companies), 7310.3 (medical and pharmacological research and development), 745 (temporary work
companies; very important for nurses, caring personnel and physiotherapists), 7522 (Ministry of
Defense, including military hospital), 7523.2 (part of medical personnel for prisons, including
prison hospital), 753 (compulsory health care insurance, operations for exceptional medical expenses
act), 8022, 8030, 9304, 9305.
- Nace v2: 86, 87, 88, 212, 266, 325, 4646, 4773, 4774, 4778.2, 4932, 6530.3, 6530.9, 6512, 7211.2
+ 7219.3 (R&D for health, medical products or pharmaceutical processes), 782, (8412 will be included
when NACE v2 is available in SSB; Regulation of the activities of providing health care, education,
cultural services and other social services, excluding social security), 8422, 8423.2, 843, 8532,
854, 9313, 9609.
Norway
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Statistics Norway. Statistics on health-care personnel. See
www.ssb.no/hesospers_en/.
- From 2002: Administrative registers.
- Earlier years: The Norwegian Medical Association.
Reference period: 3rd week of November.
Coverage: 1991-1994 covers practising physicians under 70 years of age, 1994-2001 covers practising
physicians under 67 years. Practising physicians 2002-2010 include all personnel within HP1-HP3.
2011 and onwards: Practising physicians include all personnel with a medical degree who provide
services directly to patients. Personnel with a medical degree who are working in the relevant
industries and for whom occupational data are missing are assumed to be practising physicians.
Retired professionals and professionals working abroad are excluded and foreign professionals are
included. Specialists in dental surgery are excluded.
Break in time series: 2002 due to change in source. 2011: use of occupational data.
Poland
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Interior and Administration, Ministry of National
Defence and Central Statistical Office.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: Physicians are assigned to practising or professionally active physicians based on the
primary workplace.
- Since 2003 data from the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of Interior and
Administration are included.
- Since 2004 teaching and administration staff is excluded
- Since 2005 physicians with the primary work place being private medical offices, stationary social
assistance facilities and nursing homes are included.
- Physicians working in prisons are excluded.
Break in time series:
-2003, 2004, and 2005, see coverage notes above for description.
Portugal
Data refers to licensed physicians.
Source of data: Statistics Portugal and the Portuguese Medical Association. Series available at
www.ine.pt [Medicos (N.?) por Local de residencia; Anual].
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Head count data.
- Includes all physicians registered in the Portuguese Medical Association at the time of data
collection, practising or not practising medicine.
- Includes non-practising physicians, retired professionals, professionals working abroad (if their
declared residence is in Portugal), nationals and foreigners practicing in Portugal.
- Includes qualified physicians practising in hospitals and official clinics.
- Includes physicians working in private ambulatory health establishments, including private
cabinets.
- Includes all physicians registered in the Portuguese Medical Association on 31st December of the
reference year (non-specialised physicians and specialised physicians).
- Stomatologists, maxillo-facial surgeons, dentists and odontologists are not included here.
- Physicians with a declared residence abroad are also not included.
Republic of Moldova
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Moldova, National Centre for Health
Management, Annual statistical report N17 ?On staff and cadres of health institutions?.
http://cnms.md/areas/statistics/anyar/.
Reference period: Data as of December 31.
Coverage: Data exclude Transnistria.
Deviation from the definition: Foreign physicians are not included. Interns and residents are not
included.
Romania
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: National Institute of Statistics, Activity of Sanitary Units ? annual survey
performed by NIS.
Reference period: data as of 31st December.
Coverage:
The data cover all sanitary physicians from public and private sector.
- Physicians (ISCO/COR 2221) are defined as the persons who have completed studies in medicine at
the university level and who are licensed to practice. Physicians? tasks include: medical or
surgical treatment for diagnosed illness of patients, conducting medical examination, making
diagnosis and giving treatment diagnosed illnesses, disorders or injuries, establish curative and
preventive medical measurement, relished rep
Russian Federation
Data refers to practising physicians.
NA
San Marino
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Human Resources Office at the Social Security Institute.
Coverage: Data include only public sector’ health professionals.
Serbia
Data refers to professionally active physicians.
Source of data: Institute of Public Health of Serbia, National register on health care human resources.
Reference period: 31st December http://www.batut.org.rs/
Coverage: Data for Kosovo-Metohija province are not included in the coverage of data for the Republic of Serbia. Data from health institutions under other ministries (military services, prisons, social services) than the Ministry of Health are not included. Data from private health sector are not included.
Slovakia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: National Health Information Center.
- Data are provided from the Register of Health Professionals. Recent data available only for 2007. The New Register of Health Professionals was introduced for operation on 31 Dec. 2007. Update of the Register is not made every year, thus data for practising physicians for 2005, 2006 and 2008–2011 are not available (selection of the data is not possible).
Reference period: 31st December.
Slovenia
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: The National Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, National Health Care Providers Database.
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage:
- Practising physicians are those working in the health-care sector (primary, secondary and tertiary care), including public health institutes and health insurance funds.
- The National Health Care Providers Database is a registry with total (100 %) coverage of health workers.
Spain
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: National Statistics Institute (INE). Economically Active Population Survey (several issues). http://www.ine.es/jaxi/menu.do?type=pcaxis&path=/t22/e308_mnu&file=inebase&N=&L=0.
Reference period: Annual average.
Coverage:
- Up to 2010, the data include "physicians and odontologists" from the National Occupations Classification (CNO-94 Spain, code 212) on 3 digit level. The information on 4 digit level is not available. The CNO-94 code 212 is the Spanish equivalence of ISCO-88 codes 2221 (medical doctors) and 2222 (dentists). It is not possible to separate "physicians and odontologists" on 3 digit level.
- From 2011 onwards the data are classified according to CNO-11 Spain, code 211. The CNO-11 code 211 is the Spanish equivalence of ISCO-08 code 221 (medical doctors). Dentists are not included in the ‘practising’ figures since 2011.
- The ‘Practising’ data correspond to physicians whose activity (NACE) is within the health sector. The number of practising physicians was obtained by calculating the number of physicians employed in the health sector according to NACE rev.2 (chapter Q) since 2009, and similarly with NACE Rev.1 and NACE Rev.1.1 before 2009.
- Medical interns/residents are included in the data on health employment if they worked at least one hour in return for remuneration during the week prior to the interview (Survey reference week).
- Data analysis over time should be carried out with caution. Data are obtained from a survey and fluctuations in the data can occur for a number of reasons, one of them being the sampling errors. These variations can lead to false assumptions about trends. We advise users of time series data to carefully explore the relevant issues before drawing any conclusions about the reasons for year-on-year changes.
Deviation from the definition: Data include dentists until 2010.
Break in time series: In the year 2005 there is a break in the series due to a “new methodology” in the Labour Force Survey. During the first quarter of 2005 various changes have been introduced into the Economically Active Population Survey:
1. New variables have been included in accordance with Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Communities) requirements, set forth in Regulation 2257/2003.
2. A centralised procedure has been implemented for the process of the telephone interviews.
3. With the goal of further standardising the survey process, the questions of the questionnaire have been reformulated.
Sweden
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- Before 1995: Swedish Medical Association of Physicians.
- From 1995: National Board of Health and Welfare, National Planning Support (NPS) register.
Reference period: 1st November.
Coverage:
Before 1995:
- Physicians include all physicians younger than 65 years who are members of the Swedish Medical Association, which is the occupational organisation for all physicians in Sweden. Besides general practitioners and other specialists, it also includes resident physicians and licensed physicians who do not yet have a specialist competence.
- Physicians and GPs include geriatricians, specialists include psychiatrists and public health physicians.
From 1995:
- Head count data. Excludes non-practising physicians, retired professionals and professionals working abroad. Includes professionals who are foreigners.
- Physicians include all persons with a Swedish physician’s license and pre-licensed physicians employed within the health-care sector.
- 100 per cent coverage.
Break in time series: Data on physicians before 1995 are not consistent with the data from 1995 because of different sources and different methodology.
Switzerland
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: FSO Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel, Swiss Medical Association (FMH), Bern, medical statistics of physicians, yearly census.
Tajikistan
Data refers to practising physicians.
NA
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Data refers to professionally active physicians.
Source of data: Institute for Public Health-Skopje. Report for health staff in health sector (3-00-60).
Reference period: 31st December.
Coverage: From 2006 data includes both, public and private sectors. Up until 2005, the data sets for private sector are incomplete, because private sector physicians were not sending reports regularly to the relevant organisations. Since 2006, more strict controls for regular reporting were put into practice by the Ministry of Health, which resulted in very accurate report sending and vastly improved evidence of health personnel. Also, the new software from 2006 comprises private sector physicians. Private sector is not included in year 2005 and earlier.
Break in the series: 2006, stricter reinforcement of reporting with inclusion of private sector.
Turkey
Data refers to professionally active physicians.
Source of data:
- From 2000 onwards: General Directorate for Health Services, Ministry of Health.
- Up to 1999: Health Statistics Yearbook - Ministry of Health.
Coverage:
- All sectors (Ministry of Health, University, Private and Other) are included. MOD-affiliated facilities are not included.
- Others (Other public establishments and local administrations) have been included since 2006. MOD-affiliated facilities are not included.
- Practitioners who are retired or work abroad are not included. However, practitioners acting as managers are included.
Turkmenistan
Data refers to professionally active physicians.
Source of data: Report from of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan. ? 17 “Health employment”
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: Includes data from institutions under the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan, data from other Ministries or sectors not included.
Ukraine
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source: Centre of Health Statistics, Ministry of Health.
Coverage: Since 2009, data includes public and private sector.
Deviation from the definition: From 1996 and onwards, the following categories are not included in the total number of physicians: administrators, working in research institutions, teaching medical students, sanitary group, stomatologists. Data are based on annual statistical reports from health establishments.
United Kingdom
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data:
- England: Health & Social Care Information Centre, General & Personal Medical Services Statistics and Medical & Dental Workforce Census, http://www.hscic.gov.uk/searchcatalogue?q=staff+numbers&area=&size=10&sort=Relevance.
- Northern Ireland: Hospital staff from Human Resource Management System, DHSSPS, GP staff from Medlist, Business Services Organisation,
- Scotland: Information Services Division, Medical and Dental Census, GP Contractor Database, Scottish Workforce Information Standard System,
- Wales: Welsh Assembly Government: http://new.wales.gov.uk/topics/statistics/theme/health/?lang=en.
Reference period: Data as at 30th September.
Coverage:
- Data cover National Health Service staff only.
- Data exclude dental staff, optometrists/opticians, and locum staff.
- Scotland: Headcount includes doctors working in general practice (including GP retainees) or medical hospital, community or public health services (excluding staff with an administrative or director grade).
- See medical and dental trend table on web page http://www.isdscotland.org/isd/5345.html.
- Northern Ireland: Data exclude bank staff, research fellows, clinical assistants and hospital/medical practitioners (who will likely already have been counted as General Practitioners on Medlist). Data from 2000 exclude staff on career breaks. The UK equivalent to interns and residents, i.e. foundation doctors and specialty registrars, are included in the data. Deviation from the definition:
- Scotland: Data exclude Ophthalmic Medical Practitioners. Estimation method:
- Raw numbers of Physicians up to 1989 for Great Britain have been increased pro-rata by the OECD Secretariat to provide appropriate numbers for the UK, enabling the correct computation of density and percentage of total health employment figures using the UK population and health employment data stored within the database.
- 2012 - Welsh data were not available in time for this collection, so the previous year’s figure was used instead. This will be updated with the correct data in next year’s collection Break in time series: 1971, 1979, 1987, 1990.
- There are breaks in the physician's series at 1971 and 1979. Physician's figures from 1960 to 1970 are derived from the OPCS (now ONS) Annual Abstract of Statistics issues for those years. 1971 to 1989 calculated by Department of Health. Data from 1971 to 1979 correspond to figures in table D6 of the OECD ‘Measuring Health Care 1960-1983: Expenditure, costs and performance’ volume (OECD Social Policy Studies no.2, 1985). From 1987 onwards, dental staff in GB are excluded. They include hospital and community health medical staff and general medical practitioners. Before 1987, they included general medical practitioners and hospital medical staff only.
- Data prior to 2000 exclude a small number of Ophthalmic Medical Practioners (400 to 800).
- In 2010, Physicians time series data has been re-submitted from 2000 to include a small number of Ophthalmic Medical Practitioners for England & Wales that had previously not been counted. This represents 400 to 800 additional physicians.
Uzbekistan
Data refers to practising physicians.
Source of data: Institute of Health and Medical Statistics, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reporting form 15-SSV “Report on Health personnel by categories”.
Reference period: 31 December.
Coverage: data include personnel working within the system of the Ministry of Health only.
Break in time series: 2008. Until 2008 dentists were included into the number of the practicing physicians.